EnCat™ & Other Catalysts

Partnering with Reaxa, we offer a variety of transition metal-based encapsulated catalysts for applications in areas such as Suzuki, Stille, and Heck couplings, carbonylations, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and dihydroxylation.

Coupling Chemistry

Pd(II) EnCat™

Pd(II) EnCat™ covers a versatile range of immobilized palladium acetate catalysts with or without activating ligands contained in a robust, porous polyurea matrix which allow easier, faster and cleaner reaction processes to be developed. The recyclable catalysts have demonstrated superb activity in cross-couplings, Heck couplings, and carbonylations.

Technical Information for Download (PDF format):

1) Pd(0) and Pd(II) EnCat™ Presentation (2.8 MB PDF)
2) Pd(II) EnCat™ Technical Flier (485KB PDF)
3) Pd(II) EnCat™ User Guide (72 KB PDF)
4) ChemFiles 2007 Supplement 1: Encapsulated Catalysts and Metal Scavengers (624 KB PDF)

Cheminar™ 1.1: Pd EnCat™ Technology (click here to view)

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Vickerstaffe E, Warrington BH, Ladlow M, Ley SV. 2003. Fully automated multi-step solution phase synthesis using polymer supported reagents: preparation of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Org. Biomol. Chem.. 1(14):2419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b305713e
2.
Bapna A, Vickerstaffe E, Warrington BH, Ladlow M, Fan TD, Ley SV. 2004. Polymer-assisted, multi-step solution phase synthesis and biological screening of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Org. Biomol. Chem.. 2(4):611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b313414h
3.
Lee CKY, Holmes AB, Ley SV, McConvey IF, Al-Duri B, Leeke GA, Santos RCD, Seville JPK. 2005. Efficient batch and continuous flow Suzuki cross-coupling reactions under mild conditions, catalysed by polyurea-encapsulated palladium (ii) acetate and tetra-n-butylammonium salts. Chem. Commun..(16):2175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b418669a
4.
2005. Pilotti, P. et al. Pharm. Disc. . 5(8), 32.
5.
Gil-Moltó J, Karlström S, Nájera C. 2005. Di(2-pyridyl)methylamine?palladium dichloride complex covalently anchored to a styrene-maleic anhydride co-polymer as recoverable catalyst for C?C cross-coupling reactions in water. Tetrahedron. 61(51):12168-12176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2005.08.122
6.
Baxendale IR, Griffiths-Jones CM, Ley SV, Tranmer GK. 2006. Microwave-Assisted Suzuki Coupling Reactions with an Encapsulated Palladium Catalyst for Batch and Continuous-Flow Transformations. Chem. Eur. J.. 12(16):4407-4416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200501400
7.
Yamamoto Y, Suzuki R, Hattori K, Nishiyama H. Base- and Phosphine-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Homocoupling of ­Arylboronic Acid Derivatives under Air. Synlett. 2006(07):1027-1030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-939071
8.
Ramarao C, Ley SV, Smith SC, Shirley IM, DeAlmeida N. 2002. Encapsulation of palladium in polyurea microcapsules. Chem. Commun..(10):1132-1133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b200674j
9.
Ley SV, Ramarao C, Gordon RS, Holmes AB, Morrison AJ, McConvey IF, Shirley IM, Smith SC, Smith MD. 2002. Polyurea-encapsulated palladium(ii) acetate: a robust and recyclable catalyst for use in conventional and supercritical mediaElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: representative experimental procedures. See http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/cc/b2/b200677b/. Chem. Commun..(10):1134-1135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b200677b
10.
Ley SV, Bremeyer N, Ramarao C, Shirley IM, Smith SC. 2002. Palladium Acetate in Polyurea Microcapsules: A Recoverable and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogenations. Synlett. 2002(11):1843-1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-34862
11.
D A P. 2005. et al. Aldrichimica Acta. 38, 23.
12.
Leeke GA, Al-Duri B, Seville JPK, Smith CJ, Lee CKY, Holmes AB, McConvey IF. 2007. Continuous-Flow Suzuki?Miyaura Reaction in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Org. Process Res. Dev.. 11(1):144-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/op060177z
13.
Ley S, Vickerstaffe E, Villard A, Ladlow M. Chromatography-Free Suzuki Reactions Using a Polymer-Assisted Solution-Phase (PASP) Approach. Synlett. 2007(08):1251-1254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-977457

LaPCatTM

The LaPCat™ kit is an exclusive collection of six palladium and/or copper containing perovskite heterogeneous catalysts for use in a wide range of organic reactions. LaPCat™ catalysts demonstrate superb catalytic activity in many coupling reactions with a wide variety of substrates.

As shown in the table above, the various LaPCat™ catalysts have broad application in several important classes of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions.


<>Fast, efficient processes

Technical Information for Download (PDF format):

1) LaPCatTM Presentation (1.3 MB PDF)
2) LaPCatTM Technical Flier (365 KB PDF)
3) LaPCatTM User Guide (287 KB PDF)
4) ChemFiles 2007 Supplement 1: Encapsulated Catalysts and Metal Scavengers (624 KB PDF)


Hydrogenation

Pd(0) EnCat™ 30NP

Pd(0) EnCat™ 30NP is a versatile polymer encapsulated nanoparticulate Pd(0) hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation catalyst with high chemoselectivity and improved safety profile allowing easier, faster and cleaner processes to be developed. Reaxa’s controlled manufacturing process produces regular palladium(0) nanoparticles stabilized by the polymer matrix within the EnCat™ beads, ensuring that the catalyst performance is extremely reproducible from batch to batch (c.f. palladium on carbon).

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Yu J, Wu H, Ramarao C, Spencer JB, Ley SV. 2003. Transfer hydrogenation using recyclable polyurea-encapsulated palladium: efficient and chemoselective reduction of aryl ketones. Chem. Commun..(6):678-679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b300074p
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Ley SV, Stewart-Liddon AJP, Pears D, Perni RH, Treacher K. Hydrogenation of aromatic ketones, aldehydes, and epoxides with hydrogen and Pd(0)EnCat? 30NP. Beilstein J. Org. Chem.. 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1860-5397-2-15
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Ley SV, Mitchell C, Pears D, Ramarao C, Yu J, Zhou W. 2003. Recyclable Polyurea-Microencapsulated Pd(0) Nanoparticles:? An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogenolysis of Epoxides. Org. Lett.. 5(24):4665-4668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol0358509
4.
Siu J, Baxendale IR, Ley SV. Microwave assisted Leimgruber?Batcho reaction for the preparation of indoles, azaindoles and pyrroylquinolines. Org. Biomol. Chem.. 2(2):160-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b313012f
5.
Ramarao C, Ley SV, Smith SC, Shirley IM, DeAlmeida N. 2002. Encapsulation of palladium in polyurea microcapsules. Chem. Commun..(10):1132-1133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b200674j
6.
D. A P. 2005. et al. Aldrichimica Acta. 38, 23.
7.
Quai M, Repetto C, Barbaglia W, Cereda E. 2007. Fast deprotection of phenoxy benzyl ethers in transfer hydrogenation assisted by microwave. Tetrahedron Letters. 48(7):1241-1245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2006.12.041

Pt(0) EnCat™ 40

Pt(0) EnCat™ 40 is a versatile hydrogenation catalyst demonstrating high chemoselectivity and improved safety profile over platinum on carbon allowing easier, faster and cleaner processes to be developed. Isolating the active platinum within the polymer matrix has produced an easily-handled and safer alternative to Pt/C. The catalyst is particularly effective for hydrogenation of nitro groups and reductive aminations in the presence of halogens.

Technical Information for Download (PDF format):

1) Pt(0) EnCat™ 40 Presentation (323 KB PDF)
2) Pt(0) EnCat™ 40 Technical Flier (43 KB PDF)
3) Pt(0) EnCat™ 40 User Guide (43 KB PDF)
4) ChemFiles 2007 Supplement 1: Encapsulated Catalysts and Metal Scavengers (624 KB PDF)

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Dihydroxylation

Os EnCat™ 40

Osmium tetroxide (OsO4)is known to be one of the most reliable and effective catalysts for oxidative cleavage and dihydroxylation of olefins. However, it is very toxic, volatile and expensive, thus limits its usefulness at large-scale. Os EnCat™ 40 effectively immobilizes and stabilizes osmium tetroxide to produce a safer and easier-to-use catalyst for application in oxidation chemistry.

In the above picture, a vial containing Os EnCat™ 40 placed in the presence of corn oil is unchanged after several months, whereas an equivalent sample of volatile osmium tetroxide quickly reacts to produce black decomposition products, indicating the stability of the encapsulated OsO4.

Technical Information for Download (PDF format):

1) Os EnCat™ 40 Technical Flier (73 KB PDF)
2) Os EnCat™ 40 User Guide (111 KB PDF)
3) ChemFiles 2007 Supplement 1: Encapsulated Catalysts and Metal Scavengers (624 KB PDF)

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Ley SV. 2003. et al. Org. Lett.. 5, 185.
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Whitehead DC, Travis BR, Borhan B. 2006. The OsO4-mediated oxidative cleavage of olefins catalyzed by alternative osmium sources. Tetrahedron Letters. 47(22):3797-3800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2006.03.087
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Ley SV. 2003. et al. Org. Lett . 5, 185.
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Lee A, Ley SV. 2003. The synthesis of the anti-malarial natural product polysphorin and analogues using polymer-supported reagents and scavengers. Org. Biomol. Chem.. 1(22):3957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b308761a