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Synthetic Lethality Screening Identifies FDA-Approved Drugs that Overcome ATP7B-Mediated Tolerance of Tumor Cells to Cisplatin.

Cancers (2020-03-12)
Marta Mariniello, Raffaella Petruzzelli, Luca G Wanderlingh, Raffaele La Montagna, Annamaria Carissimo, Francesca Pane, Angela Amoresano, Ekaterina Y Ilyechova, Michael M Galagudza, Federico Catalano, Roberta Crispino, Ludmila V Puchkova, Diego L Medina, Roman S Polishchuk
ABSTRACT

Tumor resistance to chemotherapy represents an important challenge in modern oncology. Although platinum (Pt)-based drugs have demonstrated excellent therapeutic potential, their effectiveness in a wide range of tumors is limited by the development of resistance mechanisms. One of these mechanisms includes increased cisplatin sequestration/efflux by the copper-transporting ATPase, ATP7B. However, targeting ATP7B to reduce Pt tolerance in tumors could represent a serious risk because suppression of ATP7B might compromise copper homeostasis, as happens in Wilson disease. To circumvent ATP7B-mediated Pt tolerance we employed a high-throughput screen (HTS) of an FDA/EMA-approved drug library to detect safe therapeutic molecules that promote cisplatin toxicity in the IGROV-CP20 ovarian carcinoma cells, whose resistance significantly relies on ATP7B. Using a synthetic lethality approach, we identified and validated three hits (Tranilast, Telmisartan, and Amphotericin B) that reduced cisplatin resistance. All three drugs induced Pt-mediated DNA damage and inhibited either expression or trafficking of ATP7B in a tumor-specific manner. Global transcriptome analyses showed that Tranilast and Amphotericin B affect expression of genes operating in several pathways that confer tolerance to cisplatin. In the case of Tranilast, these comprised key Pt-transporting proteins, including ATOX1, whose suppression affected ability of ATP7B to traffic in response to cisplatin. In summary, our findings reveal Tranilast, Telmisartan, and Amphotericin B as effective drugs that selectively promote cisplatin toxicity in Pt-resistant ovarian cancer cells and underscore the efficiency of HTS strategy for identification of biosafe compounds, which might be rapidly repurposed to overcome resistance of tumors to Pt-based chemotherapy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
MISSION® esiRNA, targeting human ATP7B

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