• Home
  • Search Results
  • Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.

Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.

The ISME journal (2013-10-25)
Patrick M Erwin, Mari Carmen Pineda, Nicole Webster, Xavier Turon, Susanna López-Legentil
ABSTRACT

Ascidians are ecologically important components of marine ecosystems yet the ascidian microbiota remains largely unexplored beyond a few model species. We used 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive characterization of microbial symbionts in the tunic of 42 Great Barrier Reef ascidian samples representing 25 species. Results revealed high bacterial biodiversity (3 217 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU0.03) from 19 described and 14 candidate phyla) and the widespread occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in coral reef ascidians (24 of 25 host species). The ascidian microbiota was clearly differentiated from seawater microbial communities and included symbiont lineages shared with other invertebrate hosts as well as unique, ascidian-specific phylotypes. Several rare seawater microbes were markedly enriched (200-700 fold) in the ascidian tunic, suggesting that the rare biosphere of seawater may act as a conduit for horizontal symbiont transfer. However, most OTUs (71%) were rare and specific to single hosts and a significant correlation between host relatedness and symbiont community similarity was detected, indicating a high degree of host-specificity and potential role of vertical transmission in structuring these communities. We hypothesize that the complex ascidian microbiota revealed herein is maintained by the dynamic microenvironments within the ascidian tunic, offering optimal conditions for different metabolic pathways such as ample chemical substrate (ammonia-rich host waste) and physical habitat (high oxygen, low irradiance) for nitrification. Thus, ascidian hosts provide unique and fertile niches for diverse microorganisms and may represent an important and previously unrecognized habitat for nitrite/nitrate regeneration in coral reef ecosystems.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 7 N in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia, anhydrous, ≥99.98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 0.4 M in THF
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 0.4 M in dioxane
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 4 M in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia, puriss., anhydrous, ≥99.95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in isopropanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Ammonia, puriss., anhydrous, ≥99.9%

Social Media

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon

Merck

Research. Development. Production.

We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.

© 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.