Dairy regulations in the US are primarily dictated by individual states and involve frequent coordination between states and federal bodies. Additional information about how states coordinate with regulatory bodies for milk safety can be found on the FDA website.
A comprehensive overview of dairy regulations in Canada can be found on the Canadian government website.
There are numerous local dairy trade and industry organization throughout the world. Below we have listed some of the most commonly known organizations, but this list should not be considered comprehensive.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) verifies that meat and poultry products in Canada are safe and wholesome. CFIA also monitors registered and non-registered establishments for labelling compliance and audits the delivery of a grading program based on objective standards of meat quality and retail yield.
The Safe Food for Canadians Act outlines commodity specific requirements. Current information on these regulations may be found on the Canadian government's website.
Many meat industry organizations exist worldwide; the list below highlights the most prominant organizations in the US, Canada, and Europe.
Formal legislation surrounding cell-based meat is pending; however, FDA and USDA have published a formal agreement for regulatory oversight.
FDA will oversee cell collection, cell banks, cell growth, and differentiation. USDA -FSIS will oversee cell harvesting stages, production, and labeling of human food products derived from the cells of livestock and poultry.
As of July 2020, no regulations specific to cell-grown meat have been released in Canada. The regulatory bodies most likely responsible for oversight include Health Canada, CFIA, Agriculture, and Agri-Food Canada.
Existing regulations for food that could reasonably influence the framework for regulations impacting cell-based meat are listed below:
Plant-Based Foods Association has developed the only existing framework for industry standard: “Certified Plant-Based Standard” is recognized by the National Science Foundation. PBFA is currently advocating to FDA for consideration.
More information is available at the trade organization, Plant-Based Foods Association.
In Canada, most plant-based meat alternatives are currently considered “Simulated Meat and Simulated Poultry Products” and are primarily regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
Some relevant regulations include the Safe Food for Canadians Act and the Food and Drug Act: B.01.100(4), FDR (labelling).
More information is available at the trade organization, Plant-Based Foods of Canada.
Fruits & Vegetables
There are numerous fruit and vegetable trade organizations throughout the world. Below we have listed organizations in the US and Canada.
Bioengineered foods or GMOs are a fairly novel segment in the food landscape. Historically, countries have taken varied stances on the approval of bioengineered foods or foods containing GMOs. With a growing population, technologies on genetically modifying produce have been used to improve durability and/or nutritional value, but there are concerns around allergenicity and human health.
Food produced using bioengineering or containing ingredients produced using bioengineering must be disclosed as bioengineered food in the US as of January 1, 2020.
U.S. FDA defines animal food as any article that is intended to be used as an animal feed ingredient, to become part of an ingredient or feed, or added to an animal's drinking water.
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO): The Association of State, Federal, and International Regulatory officials is the recognized review authority by the FDA. It Assists with the development of model laws and regulations as well as ingredient approvals to be adopted by federal and state bodies. This association also acts as a harmonization conduit between state and federal bodies.
National Research Council (NRC): This council compiles and publishes feed libraries for domestic animal species for nutrient content of feed ingredients. Its committee meets every 8-10 years, and it covers most animals, including dogs, cats, rabbits, sheep, cows (Beef & Dairy), horses, goats, and laboratory animals, etc. The libraries are based on the type of feed offered (ex: canned, pelleted, total mixed ration).
Animal Feeds in Canada are defined slightly differently than in the US. In Canada, "Feed" is defined under section 2 of the Feeds Act as:
“.. any substance or mixture of substances containing amino acids, anti-oxidants, carbohydrates, condiments, enzymes, fats, minerals, non-protein nitrogen products, proteins or vitamins, or pelletizing, colouring, foaming or flavouring agents and any other substance manufactured, sold or represented for use
or any substance for use in any such substance or mixture of substances."
Feeds for the following species of livestock are currently regulated under the Feeds Act and Regulations: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese), fish, foxes, mink, and rabbits.
Feeds for other species are exempt from the Feeds Act and Regulations. However, they may still be subject to import or export requirements under other authorities administered by the CFIA.
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO): The Association of State, Federal, and International Regulatory officials covers both US & Canada. It is a recognized review authority by FDA and Health Canada/CFIA. This association assists with the development of model laws and regulations as well as ingredient approvals, and it acts as a harmonization conduit between provinces, territories, and federal bodies.
The following associations are great resources, particularly for beverages:
ISO 22000 is a certifiable standard that addresses food safety management system. It defines the guidelines and best practices an organization must follow to control food safety hazards and ensure safe consumption of food. FSSC 22000 includes and expands upon the ISO 22000 requirements.
While there are global regulatory bodies that can be followed, different regions can also have country specific regulations for the food and beverages that is imported and produced in the country. Here you will find a non-exhaustive overview of regulatory agencies for specific countries grouped by region, North America, Europe and Asia & Australia.
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