Due to disease complexity, cancer research is a multidisciplinary field that spans basic, translational, and clinical research. Advancements depend on an increased understanding of the tumor cell environment and cancer biological, etiologic, clinical, and genetic heterogeneity. Insights into the causes and mechanisms of cancer development and progression have yielded new methods for cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. Improved detection methods have increased the rate of early detection and contributed to decreased cancer mortality for several cancer types, but a significant gap remains in asymptomatic and population-based screening methods.
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