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Phenobarbital sodium salt

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5-Ethyl-5-phenyl-2,4,6-trioxohexahydropyrimidine sodium salt, 5-Ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid sodium salt, Luminal sodium salt, Sodium 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbiturate
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:



Quality Level

drug control

USDEA Schedule IV; Home Office Schedule 3; psychotrope (France); kontrollierte Droge in Deutschland; regulated under CDSA - not available from Sigma-Aldrich Canada; psicótropo (Spain); Decreto Lei 15/93: Tabela IV (Portugal)


H2O: 1 g/mL
ethanol: 100 mg/mL



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InChI key


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Phenobarbital sodium salt has been used:
  • to anesthetize mice for inducing ischemia-reperfusion injury
  • as a positive control for the activation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)
  • in bioluminescent yeast bioreporters (BLYAS) assay

Biochem/physiol Actions

Phenobarbital, a substituted barbituric acid is an antileptic drug and is not easily eliminated from circulation. It hyperpolarizes the synaptic neuronal membranes by favoring the activation of neuronal postsynaptic GABAA receptors by γ aminobutyric acid (GABA). Phenobarbital is also effective in treating neonatal seizures and status epilepticus.
Sedative; hypnotic; anticonvulsant; enhances GABAergic activity.

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for Neuroscience research. Click here to discover more featured Neuroscience products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at
This compound is featured on the Dopamine and Norepinephrine Metabolism and GABAA Receptors pages of the Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction. To browse other handbook pages, click here.
This compound was developed by Bayer. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.


Skull and crossbonesHealth hazard

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 3 Oral - Carc. 2 - Skin Sens. 1

Storage Class Code

6.1C - Combustible, acute toxic Cat.3 / toxic compounds or compounds which causing chronic effects



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

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P R Territo et al.
Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, 30(6), 508-515 (2007-11-10)
The development and validation of the maximal electro-shock (MES) model using phenobarbital (Pb) as the positive control is described. This approach builds on previous work in rodent model systems, and has been adapted to dogs as a tool for pharmaceutical
Effective, easy to use and affordable?the discovery and use of phenobarbital
Bryan J
Pharmaceut. Res., 289(7728), 443-443 (2012)
Shui-Chuan Huang et al.
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 42(6), 2492-2506 (2017-08-30)
Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the development of vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-22-3p plays a role in regulating human artery vascular
Liana M Yates et al.
Frontiers in veterinary science, 7, 86-86 (2020-03-11)
Phenobarbital is a common drug used to manage epilepsy in goats. However, the recommended dose and dosing frequency are based on studies in dogs and horses. Studies describing the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital when administered orally and assessing changes in behavior
Di Zhao et al.
Innate immunity, 27(7-8), 533-542 (2021-11-19)
Crohn's disease activates the inflammatory reactions to induce intestinal disorders. Enteral nutrition (EN) could exert general immunomodulatory effects. Cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) surgery was utilized to establish Crohn's disease mice models. Survival analysis, hematoxylin-eosin staining, flow cytometry, ELISA, Western

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