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Cell signaling

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Serotonin Synthesis and Metabolism
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is principally found stored in three main cell types - i) serotonergic neurons in the CNS and in the intestinal myenteric plexus, ii) enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and iii) in blood platelets. Metabolism
Biglycan is a 200-350 kDa(proteoglycan consisting of a 45 kDa core protein and two chrondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains.
Introduction about α-Actinin protein present in both muscle and non-muscle cells.
Spectrin is the major component of the protein network, which covers the cytoplasmic surface of vertebrate, erythrocyte membranes. It is a high molecular weight heterodimer, composed of two subunits (molecular weights of approximately 230 kDa and 250 kDa)
Overview of G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
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Nuclear Receptors (Non-Steroids)
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Nitric Oxide Synthases
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GABAA Receptors
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Review alpha 2 adrenoceptors as well as their agonists, antagonists, and tissue expression patterns. We suggest several modulators and alternatives for working with a-2 adrenoreceptors.
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Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (CNG) and Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (HCN) Channels
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Nanodisc Technology: A Revolutionary System for Study of Membrane Proteins
Read our article about how the Nanodisc system allows for structural studies of membrane proteins.
Glycine Receptors
The amino acid glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Glycinergic synapses are particularly abundant in spinal cord and brain stem, but are also found in higher brain regions including the hippocampus. The inhibitory actions of glycine
Growth Factors and Cytokines: Classification and Nomenclature
Growth factors and cytokines have historically been classified into ‘families’ based on their apparent activity and/or impact on a given cell type, system, or tissue.
Quorum Sensing Modulators
Quorum sensing is a chemical communication mechanism used by many common bacteria to initiate group behaviors. It plays an important role in the establishment of infection by pathogens and in mediating certain symbioses.
Interleukin Family (IL)
The Interleukins comprise a disparate group of cytokines and growth factors that are produced by and released from leukocytes. Interleukin-1β (1L-1β) is released primarily from stimulated macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in inflammatory and immune responses and
Vitronectin is a glycoprotein present in plasma and tissues. Together with fibronectin, vitronectin is one of the major cell adhesion proteins in plasma.
Myosins are a family of ATP-dependent motor proteins. Myosin II is the major contractile protein involved in eukaryotic muscle contraction by “walking” along actin microfilaments of the sarcomere
Vimentin is an intermediate filamentous cytosketetal protein found in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin typically exists as a coiled-coil dimer that interacts with another dimers to form a tetrameric complex that forms cytoskeletal protein sheets
Troponin together with tropomyosin, regulate the binding of myosin to actin. Troponin is a trimeric protein composed of Troponin subunits I, C and T. Troponin C binds calcium ions, Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and troponin I binds
β-Adrenoceptors are activated either by norepinephrine or epinephrine. Learn more about the role of β-adrenoceptors in protein expression, cell signaling, and metabolism research.
Phospholipase A2
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) designates a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester of glycerophospholipids to produce a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. It has become clear that some of these enzymes liberate arachidonic acid in mammalian cells for the
Histamine Synthesis and Metabolism
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Dopamine and Norepinephrine Metabolism
Either monoamine oxidase A (MAO) or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) can catalyze the first step in catecholamine catabolism. The potentially toxic aldehyde intermediate generated in the MAO reaction (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde for dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde for norepinephrine) is either rapidly reduced to an alcohol (by
Potassium Channels
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Serotonin Receptors
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Prostanoid Receptors
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