Primmorphs (a three-dimensional sponge primary cell culture system) have been revealed to be a cell/tissue nano-factory for the production of tailor-made hybrid nanostructures. Growth of primmorphs is stimulated by the presence of a titanium alkoxide precursor tolerating titania (TiO2) concentrations up to 250 microM. The presence and activity of silicatein in primmorphs has been analyzed by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Results of studies by scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy have revealed silica and titania to be co-localized on nanosized spicules. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of titania into the nanosized spicule is enzymatically mediated via active silicatein in an orchestrated mechanism.