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Assessment of phytotoxic effects, uptake and translocation of diclofenac in chicory (Cichorium intybus).

Chemosphere (2019-10-20)
Natalia S Podio, Lidwina Bertrand, Daniel A Wunderlin, Ana N Santiago
ABSTRACT

Pharmaceuticals in the environment have been an increasing research topic over the past decade, since they can be found in both natural and drinking water, including irrigation of crops and edible plants with contaminated water. Our main goal was to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of diclofenac (DCF), a widely used pharmaceutical, on chicory (Cichorium intybus) seedlings. Additionally, we verified the uptake, bioconcentration and translocation of DCF from soil to chicory tissues. Results show that DCF induces different physiological changes in chicory seedlings. On the other hand, the soil-chicory experiment showed the activation of the detoxification system in plants treated with DCF (1 mg L-1). Finally, we found the migration of DCF from the irrigation water to the soil, followed by its uptake through the root, and its translocation to the aerial part of the chicory. However, DCF does not bioaccumulate in chicory leaves, being scarcely translocated from roots to aerial parts. This last result, along with the estimation of a daily intake of chicory, show that irrigation with water containing DCF (≤1 mg L-1) does not represent a threat to human health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of DCF on chicory seedlings, including the evaluation of its uptake and translocation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Millipore
Durapore® Membrane Filter, 0.45 µm, 0.45 µm pore size, hydrophilic PVDF, 47 mm membrane
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentostatin, ≥95% (HPLC)