Perchloroethylene (PCE) is the most widely used solvent in dry cleaning. The aim was to evaluate PCE pollution and to identify the most reliable biological indicators for the assessment of workers' exposure. The study was performed in 40 dry cleaning shops covering a total of 71 subjects. Environmental monitoring was carried out with personal diffusive samplers (Radiello) for the entire work shift; biological monitoring was performed by measuring PCE in urine and blood and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine on Thursday evening at end-of shift and on Friday morning pre-shift. The mean concentration of PCE in air was 52.32 mg/m3, about 30% of the TLV-TWA and the mean value of the PCE inpre-shift blood samples was 0.304 mg/l, slightly more than 50% of the BEI. In dry cleaning shops employing less than 3 persons PCE in air exceeded the TLV-TWA in 7.8% of cases; the size of the shops was inversely related to pollution. Statistically significant correlations were found between PCE exposure and PCE in blood end-of-shift (r = 0.67) and pre-shift (r = 0.70), and PCE in urine end-of-shift (r = 0.68); no correlation was found between exposure and PCE in urine pre-shift and urinary TCA. Dry cleaning shops still register conditions of exposure and pollution by PCE, although to a lesser extent than in the past. The most reliable indicators for biological monitoring are CE in end-of-shift urine and PCE in blood both at end-of-shift and pre-shift at the end of the workweek.