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Biological monitoring of exposure to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning workers.

La Medicina del lavoro (2012-10-20)
Isabella Macca, Mariella Carrieri, Maria Luisa Scapellato, P Scopa, A Trevisan, G B Bartolucci
ABSTRACT

Perchloroethylene (PCE) is the most widely used solvent in dry cleaning. The aim was to evaluate PCE pollution and to identify the most reliable biological indicators for the assessment of workers' exposure. The study was performed in 40 dry cleaning shops covering a total of 71 subjects. Environmental monitoring was carried out with personal diffusive samplers (Radiello) for the entire work shift; biological monitoring was performed by measuring PCE in urine and blood and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine on Thursday evening at end-of shift and on Friday morning pre-shift. The mean concentration of PCE in air was 52.32 mg/m3, about 30% of the TLV-TWA and the mean value of the PCE inpre-shift blood samples was 0.304 mg/l, slightly more than 50% of the BEI. In dry cleaning shops employing less than 3 persons PCE in air exceeded the TLV-TWA in 7.8% of cases; the size of the shops was inversely related to pollution. Statistically significant correlations were found between PCE exposure and PCE in blood end-of-shift (r = 0.67) and pre-shift (r = 0.70), and PCE in urine end-of-shift (r = 0.68); no correlation was found between exposure and PCE in urine pre-shift and urinary TCA. Dry cleaning shops still register conditions of exposure and pollution by PCE, although to a lesser extent than in the past. The most reliable indicators for biological monitoring are CE in end-of-shift urine and PCE in blood both at end-of-shift and pre-shift at the end of the workweek.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrachloroethylene, anhydrous, ≥99%
Supelco
Tetrachloroethylene, analytical standard
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, CS2 Desorption
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
radiello 1,3-Butadiene Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption, pkg of 1 kit (2 RAD141 adsorbing cartridges and barcode labels, 1 RAD1202 yellow diffusive body, 1 RAD121 triangular support plate, 1 instruction sheet)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, white, configured for general use, pk of 20
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Reader, pk of 1
Supelco
radiello Methylene Blue Calibration Standard for H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide), pkg of 100 mL
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, glass (with stopper), volume 2.8 mL, pk of 100
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, polypropylene (with stopper), volume 12 mL, pk of 100
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Includes one standard Radiello vertical adapter (RAD122) for each thermometer, configured for standard use, pk of 3
radiello Hydrogen Sulfide Starter Kit
Supelco
Tetrachloroethene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Tetrachloroethene solution, certified reference material, 200 μg/mL in methanol
radiello Diffusive Bodies, blue, configured for sampling light sensitive compounds, pk of 20
radiello Diffusive Bodies, permeative, configured for anaesthetic gases and vapors, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrachloroethylene, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrachloroethylene, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Supelco
Density Standard 1623 kg/m3, H&D Fitzgerald Ltd. Quality
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20