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Validation of a radial diffusive sampler for measuring occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

Journal of chromatography. A (2014-03-08)
Mariella Carrieri, Giovanni B Bartolucci, Enrico Paci, Paolo Sacco, Daniela Pigini, Laura Zaratin, Danilo Cottica, Maria L Scapellato, Giovanna Tranfo
ABSTRACT

1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a major industrial chemical used in the manufacture of rubbers and latexes; it is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose major source is traffic. Occupational exposure to (BD) can occur both during its production and during its use as a raw material. The objective of the study was the laboratory and field validation of a new diffusive sampler for BD. The nominal sampling rate of the Radiello diffusive sampler filled with Carbopack X is 30.5 cm(3)/min, at 0.177 mg/m(3), 20 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH), for an 8-h exposure time. A model can be used for calculating the sampling rate as a function of temperature, time and RH. The concentration does not affect the sampling rate above 30 μg/m(3). The measurement uncertainty (k=2), calculated both by laboratory data and by field comparison according to International Standard Organization (ISO) 13752, satisfies the EN 482:2006 requirement for measurements between 0.1 and 0.5 times the threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) (uncertainty<50%). For field validation study, 38 workers exposed to BD and 20 administrative employees, as the control group, underwent environmental and biological monitoring. Personal exposure to BD was measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) in comparison with active samplers. The BD exposure levels detected for the exposed subjects were low (mean 0.059, range <0.010-1.340 mg/m(3)) but higher than the controls levels, all below 0.010 mg/m(3). The comparison between diffusive and active (pumped) air sampling showed a good correlation, with no systematic deviation from the ideal values of the intercept and slope of the optimized regression line. The concentrations of two biomarkers were also determined on urine samples, collected at the end of the work-shift: unchanged BD, by GC-MS, and the metabolite dihydroxybutylmercapturic acid (DHBMA), by HPLC-MS/MS. The urinary excretion of the biomarkers was on average higher in the exposed group (urinary BD: mean 8.8, range <1-48.1 ng/l; DHBMA: mean 0.232, range 0.016-0.572 mg/l) than in controls (urinary BD: mean 6.4, range 2.6-14.5 ng/l; DHBMA: mean 0.205, range 0.037-0.602 mg/l), but a statistically significant difference was achieved only for unchanged BD and not for DHBMA. In conclusion, the environmental monitoring measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) appears to be a reliable method for the assessment of exposure to low levels of airborne BD and a convenient alternative to the conventional active sampling.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, pkg of 20 ea
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack Y, 120-400 mesh, bottle of 50 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack X, 120-400 mesh, bottle of 50 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack X, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack Y, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack X, 40-60 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack C, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack C, 80-100 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbopack Adsorbent, matrix Carbopack B, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, CS2 Desorption
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, polypropylene (with stopper), volume 12 mL, pk of 100
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20