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Identification of a Candidate Gene Panel for the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2015-03-20)
Gisele H J M Leyten, Daphne Hessels, Frank P Smit, Sander A Jannink, Hans de Jong, Willem J G Melchers, Erik B Cornel, Theo M de Reijke, Henk Vergunst, Paul Kil, Ben C Knipscheer, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Peter F A Mulders, Inge M van Oort, Jack A Schalken
ABSTRACT

Serum PSA (sPSA) testing has led to the identification of patients with indolent prostate cancer, and inevitably overtreatment has become a concern. Progensa PCA3 urine testing was shown to improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer, but its diagnostic value for aggressive prostate cancer is limited. Therefore, urinary biomarkers that can be used for prediction of Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancer in biopsies are urgently needed. Using gene expression profiling data, 39 prostate cancer biomarkers were identified. After quantitative PCR analysis on tissue specimens and urinary sediments, eight promising biomarkers for the urinary detection of prostate cancer were selected (ONECUT2, HOXC4, HOXC6, DLX1, TDRD1, NKAIN1, MS4A8B, PPFIA2). The hypothesis that biomarker combinations improve the diagnostic value for aggressive prostate cancer was tested on 358 urinary sediments of an intention-to-treat cohort. A urinary three-gene panel (HOXC6, TDRD1, and DLX1) had higher accuracy [area under the curve (AUC), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.83] to predict Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancer in biopsies compared with Progensa PCA3 (AUC, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.62-0.75) or sPSA (AUC, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.78). Combining the three-gene panel with sPSA further improved the predictive accuracy (AUC, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.86). The accuracy of the three-gene predictive model was maintained in subgroups with low sPSA concentrations. The urinary three-gene panel (HOXC6, TDRD1, and DLX1) represents a promising tool to identify patients with aggressive prostate cancer, also in those with low sPSA values. The combination of the urinary three-gene panel with sPSA bears great potential for the early diagnosis of patients with clinically significant prostate cancer.

MATERIALS
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