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Biological monitoring of low benzene exposure in Italian traffic policemen.

Toxicology letters (2008-07-22)
Paola Manini, Giuseppe De Palma, Roberta Andreoli, Diana Poli, Marta Petyx, Massimo Corradi, Antonio Mutti, Pietro Apostoli
ABSTRACT

A comparative evaluation of urinary biomarkers was carried out to characterize benzene exposure in a group of 100 traffic policemen of the city of Parma (Italy). All subjects were monitored once, in two consecutive days characterized by similar climatic conditions but preceded by two windy days. Benzene ambient concentration measured by municipal air monitoring stations was 1 microg/m(3) (Day 1) and 2 microg/m3 (Day 2). Personal exposure to ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) was assessed by using Radiello((R)) passive-diffusive samplers in a subgroup of 24 workers. Benzene metabolites, t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) were determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on spot urine samples collected at the end of the shift. Urinary benzene (U-B) was determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Airborne benzene concentration expressed as median [and interquartile range] was 6.07 [0.28-9.53] microg/m(3), as assessed by personal sampling. Urinary concentrations of biomarkers in the whole group were 41.8 [34.1-89.8] microg/g creatinine for t,t-MA, 0.67 [0.23-1.32] microg/g creatinine for S-PMA, and 0.16 [0.13-0.26] microg/l for U-B. Smokers eliminated significantly higher concentrations of unchanged BTEX and benzene metabolites than non-smokers (p < 0.05). When traffic policemen were distinguished into indoor (n=31) and outdoor workers, no significant differences were observed for either airborne benzene or urinary biomarkers. Significantly lower concentrations of S-PMA and U-B were determined in samples collected at Day 1 as compared to Day 2 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively) suggesting that these biomarkers are enough sensitive and specific to detect changes in airborne benzene concentration even at few microg/m(3).

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

radiello Hydrogen Sulfide Starter Kit
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, polypropylene (with stopper), volume 12 mL, pk of 100
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Includes one standard Radiello vertical adapter (RAD122) for each thermometer, configured for standard use, pk of 3
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, CS2 Desorption
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, white, configured for general use, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Reader, pk of 1
radiello Diffusive Bodies, blue, configured for sampling light sensitive compounds, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
Supelco
radiello Methylene Blue Calibration Standard for H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide), pkg of 100 mL
radiello 1,3-Butadiene Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption, pkg of 1 kit (2 RAD141 adsorbing cartridges and barcode labels, 1 RAD1202 yellow diffusive body, 1 RAD121 triangular support plate, 1 instruction sheet)
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, glass (with stopper), volume 2.8 mL, pk of 100
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
radiello Diffusive Bodies, permeative, configured for anaesthetic gases and vapors, pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20