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Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene exposure in a cohort of Italian taxi drivers.

Toxicology letters (2006-10-24)
Paola Manini, Giuseppe De Palma, Roberta Andreoli, Diana Poli, Paola Mozzoni, Giuseppina Folesani, Antonio Mutti, Pietro Apostoli
ABSTRACT

An integrated approach based on ambient and biological monitoring, the latter including both biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility, was applied to characterize benzene exposure in a group of 37 taxi drivers of the city of Parma (Italy). Airborne benzene concentrations were assessed by 24 h personal sampling and work-shift sampling inside the taxicab using passive samplers (Radiello). Benzene metabolites, trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), and urinary cotinine as biomarker of smoking habits were measured by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in both pre-shift (PS) and end-of-shift (EOS) samples. Urinary benzene (U-B) levels were determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in EOS samples. Relevant polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferases M1-1 (GSTM1), T1-1, and A1 were characterized by PCR-based methods. Mean airborne benzene concentration was 5.85 +/- 1.65 microg/m3, as assessed by 24 h personal sampling integrating for work-shift, indoor or general environment activities. Significantly, higher benzene concentrations were detected in the taxicab during the work-shift (7.71 +/- 1.95 microg/m3, p < 0.005). Smokers eliminated significantly higher concentrations of U-B and S-PMA than non-smokers in EOS samples [geometric mean (geometric S.D.): 2.58 (4.23) versus 0.44 (1.79) microg/l for U-B; 3.79 (1.50) versus 2.14 (1.87) microg/gcreat. for S-PMA, p < 0.002]. Within smokers, S-PMA concentrations significantly increased at the end of the work-shift compared to pre-shift values (p < 0.05). t,t-MA showed a similar behaviour, although differences were not significant. In the narrow range examined, no correlation was observed between air benzene concentration and urinary biomarkers. All benzene biomarkers but EOS t,t-MA were correlated with U-cotinine (p < 0.05). GSTM1 polymorphism significantly modulated S-PMA excretion, as subjects bearing the GSTM1pos genotype [3.61 (1.15) microg/gcreat.] excreted significantly higher S-PMA concentrations than GSTM1null subjects [2.19 (1.18) microg/gcreat., p < 0.05].

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, CS2 Desorption
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, polypropylene (with stopper), volume 12 mL, pk of 100
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Includes one standard Radiello vertical adapter (RAD122) for each thermometer, configured for standard use, pk of 3
radiello Diffusive Bodies, white, configured for general use, pk of 20
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Reader, pk of 1
Supelco
radiello Methylene Blue Calibration Standard for H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide), pkg of 100 mL
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, glass (with stopper), volume 2.8 mL, pk of 100
radiello 1,3-Butadiene Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption, pkg of 1 kit (2 RAD141 adsorbing cartridges and barcode labels, 1 RAD1202 yellow diffusive body, 1 RAD121 triangular support plate, 1 instruction sheet)
radiello Hydrogen Sulfide Starter Kit
radiello Diffusive Bodies, blue, configured for sampling light sensitive compounds, pk of 20
radiello Diffusive Bodies, permeative, configured for anaesthetic gases and vapors, pk of 20