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Biomonitoring for Exposure Assessment to Styrene in the Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Industry: Determinants and Interferents.

The Annals of occupational hygiene (2015-07-17)
Rossana Claudia Bonanni, Maria Pia Gatto, Enrico Paci, Andrea Gordiani, Monica Gherardi, Giovanna Tranfo
ABSTRACT

Fifty-eight workers exposed to styrene were monitored in four fibreglass reinforced plastic industries of Central Italy. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that can influence the levels of styrene exposure biomarkers of the workers and the aspects that might interfere with the exposure assessment measures, such as the co-exposure to acetone. Personal monitoring of professional exposure to airborne styrene and acetone was carried out by Radiello samplers and GC/MS analysis. Biological monitoring was performed by the determination of urinary metabolites, mandelic (MA), and phenylglyoxylic (PGA) acids with HPLC/MS/MS and unmetabolized styrene in saliva and venous blood by HS/GC/MS. The median values of the four sites ranged between 24.1 to 94.0mg m(-3) and 7.3 to 331.1mg g(-1) creatinine for airborne styrene and MA + PGA, respectively. A good linear correlation was found between styrene in air and its urinary metabolites (r = 0.854). The median value for airborne styrene was found to exceed the (Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average) of 85 mg m(-3) in one site for all the workers and in two if only moulders are considered. The multiple linear regression model showed that the determinants of urinary MA + PGA excretion were the type of process, workers' tasks, level of acetone co-exposure, and the use of respiratory protection devices. Data show that the simultaneous exposure to acetone modify the styrene metabolism with a reduction in the levels of (MA + PGA) excreted. A significant linear log-correlation was found between salivary levels of styrene and blood concentration (r = 0.746) sampled at the same t x time.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
radiello 1,3-Butadiene Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption, pkg of 1 kit (2 RAD141 adsorbing cartridges and barcode labels, 1 RAD1202 yellow diffusive body, 1 RAD121 triangular support plate, 1 instruction sheet)
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, glass (with stopper), volume 2.8 mL, pk of 100
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Includes one standard Radiello vertical adapter (RAD122) for each thermometer, configured for standard use, pk of 3
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, CS2 Desorption
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
radiello Empty Storage Tubes, polypropylene (with stopper), volume 12 mL, pk of 100
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
radiello Diffusive Bodies, permeative, configured for anaesthetic gases and vapors, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
radiello Diffusive Bodies, white, configured for general use, pk of 20
radiello BTEX/VOC Starter Kit, Thermal Desorption
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Reader, pk of 1
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
Supelco
radiello Methylene Blue Calibration Standard for H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide), pkg of 100 mL
radiello Diffusive Bodies, blue, configured for sampling light sensitive compounds, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20
radiello Hydrogen Sulfide Starter Kit