An activation study of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) isoform XV with a series of natural and non-natural amino acids and aromatic/heterocyclic amines is reported. Murine CA XV was strongly activated by some amino acids (d-Phe, l-/d-DOPA, d-Trp, l-Tyr) and amines (dopamine, serotonin, l-adrenaline and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine) with activation constants in the range of 4.0-9.5muM. l-/d-His, l-Phe, histamine and several other heterocyclic amines showed less efficient activation (K(A)s in the range of 11.6-33.4muM). The activation profile of CA XV is quite different from that of the cytosolic isoforms CA I and II or the membrane-associated CA IV. All mammalian isoforms CA I-XV are thus characterized for their interaction with this set of amino acid and amine activators, some of which are biogenic amines or neurotransmitters present in sufficiently high amounts in various tissues for exerting significant biologic responses.