A chemiluminescent cholesterol sensor with good selectivity and enhanced sensitivity was constructed based upon the peroxidase-like activity of cupric oxide nanoparticles. Cupric oxide nanoparticles can catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2, which was produced by the reaction of cholesterol and oxygen that was catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase. Therefore, the oxidation of cholesterol could be transduced into the chemiluminescence of luminol by combining these two reactions. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of cholesterol over the range of 0.625-12.5μM and a detection limit was 0.17μM. The applicability of proposed method has been validated by determination of cholesterol in milk powder and human serum samples with satisfactory results.