Three series of mixed uranyl-lanthanide (Ce or Nd) carboxylate coordination polymers have been successfully synthesized by means of a hydrothermal route using either conventional or microwave heating methods. These compounds have been prepared from mixtures of uranyl nitrate, lanthanide nitrate together with phthalic acid (1,2), pyromellitic acid (3,4), or mellitic acid (5,6) in aqueous solution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) single-crystal revealed that the phthalate complex (UO(2))(4)O(2)Ln(H(2)O)(7)(1,2-bdc)(4)·NH(4)·xH(2)O (Ln = Ce(1), Nd(2); x = 1 for 1, x = 0 for 2), is based on the connection of tetranuclear uranyl-centered building blocks linked to discrete monomeric units LnO(2)(H(2)O)(7) via the organic species to generate infinite chains, intercalated by free ammonium cations. The pyromellitate phase (UO(2))(3)Ln(2)(H(2)O)(12)(btec)(3)·5H(2)O (Ce(3), Nd(4)) contains layers of monomeric uranyl-centered hexagonal and pentagonal bipyramids linked via the carboxylate arms of the organic molecules. The three-dimensionality of the structure is ensured by the connection of remaining free carboxylate groups with isolated monomeric units LnO(2)(H(2)O)(7). The network of the third series (UO(2))(2)(OH)Ln(H(2)O)(7)(mel)·5H(2)O (Ce(5), Nd(6)) is built up from dinuclear uranyl units forming layers through connection with the mellitate ligands, which are further linked to each other through discrete monomers LnO(3)(H(2)O)(6). The thermal decomposition of the various coordination complexes led to the formation of mixed uranium-lanthanide oxide, with the fluorite-type structure at 1500 °C (for 1, 2) or 1400 °C for 3-6. Expected U/Ln ratio from the crystal structures were observed for compounds 1-6.