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Catalytic degradation of brominated flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles.

Chemosphere (2013-06-22)
Yinon Yecheskel, Ishai Dror, Brian Berkowitz
ABSTRACT

The catalytic degradation of two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) was investigated. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis were also compared to Fenton oxidation and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduction methods. BFRs have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use and become contaminants. The two studied BFRs were fully degraded with sufficient time (hours to days) and oxidation agent (H2O2). Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathway and kinetics. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12h. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements show generation of both hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. In addition, inhibition of 2,4-DBP degradation in the presence of spin traps implies a radical degradation mechanism. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
氧化铜, nanopowder, <50 nm particle size (TEM)
Sigma-Aldrich
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Sigma-Aldrich
氧化铜, powder, <10 μm, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
氧化铜, needles, mixture of CuO and Cu2O, ACS reagent
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Sigma-Aldrich
铝基氧化铜, 14-30 mesh, extent of labeling: 13 wt. % loading
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2.4-二溴苯酚, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
氧化铜, powder, 99.995% trace metals basis