Merck

Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014-04-08)
Daniel H Rothman, Gregory P Fournier, Katherine L French, Eric J Alm, Edward A Boyle, Changqun Cao, Roger E Summons
ABSTRACT

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth's greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
镍, foil, thickness 0.125 mm, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
镍, rod, diam. 6.35 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
镍, pellets, 100g, max. size 5mm, 99.99+%
镍, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.3mm, 99.99+%
镍, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.6mm, 99%
镍, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.999%
镍, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.20mm, annealed, 99%
镍, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.0025mm, 99.95%
镍, wire reel, 250m, diameter 0.25mm, annealed, 99%
镍, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99.98%
镍, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.0mm, 99%
镍, rod, 500mm, diameter 3.0mm, 99%
镍, foil, 50mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, 99.9%
镍, rod, 50mm, diameter 40mm, 99%
镍, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.3mm, annealed, 99%
镍, wire reel, 20m, diameter 0.5mm, as drawn, 99%
镍, wire reel, 10m, diameter 1.0mm, hard, 99.98%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, annealed, 99%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, as rolled, 99.98%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99.98%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 100%
镍, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%