• 主页
  • 查找结果
  • Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in humans from organogermanium compounds and germanium dioxide.

Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in humans from organogermanium compounds and germanium dioxide.

Biological trace element research (1991-06-01)
A G Schauss
摘要

There is no known biological requirement for germanium (Ge), germanates, or any organogermanium compound. Ge deficiency has not been demonstrated in any animal. The estimated average dietary intake of Ge in humans is 1.5 mg/d. Ge is widely distributed in edible foods, all of which, with few exceptions, contain less than 5 ppm Ge, since higher levels are toxic to most plants. Ingestion of Ge compounds has been shown to produce toxic effects in experimental animals. In recent years inorganic germanium salts and novel organogermanium compounds, such as carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) and lactate-citrate-germanate (Ge lactate citrate) have been sold as "nutritional supplements" in some countries for their purported immunomodulatory effects or as health-producing elixirs, resulting in intakes of Ge significantly exceeding the estimated average dietary intake. Since 1982, there have been 18 reported cases of acute renal dysfunction or failure, including two deaths, linked to oral intake of Ge elixirs containing germanium dioxide (GeO2) or Ge-132. In these cases, biopsies show vacuolar degeneration in renal tubular epithelial cells, without proteinuria or hematuria, in the absence of glomerular changes. Serum creatinine levels have been well above 400 mumol/L in such patients. In 17 of 18 cases, accumulated elemental Ge intakes reportedly ranged between 16 to 328 g over a 4-36 mo period, or between 100 to 2000 times the average estimated dietary intake for human. In surviving patients, renal function improved after discontinuation of Ge supplementation. However, in no case was recovery complete. One organogermanium compound, an azaspiran organogermanium compound, 2-aza-8-germanspiro[4,5] decane-2-propamine-8,8-diethyl-N,N-dimethyl dichloride (spirogermanium), has been found to cause both neurotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity in phase I and II studies examining its chemotherapeutic potential as an antitumor drug in the treatment of various malignancies. In cancer patients given the drug spirogermanium, 40% experienced marked, yet transient neurotoxicity. Two patients suffered from pulmonary toxicity. Results of phases I and II human cancer trials for spirogermanium have not been favorable, with the exception of moderate benefits for three types of malignancies. It is recommended that patients exposed to long-term (greater than 3 mo) Ge supplementation at levels well above the estimated daily intake be medically supervised and monitored for potential renal-, pulmonary- or neurotoxicity. Further study regarding the mechanism of Ge-induced nephrotoxicity in human is warranted.

材料
货号
品牌
产品描述

Sigma-Aldrich
锗, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锗, chips, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锗, chips, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
锗, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
锗, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.5mm, single crystal, -111, 100%
锗, disks, 15mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 100%
锗, disks, 20mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, 100%
锗, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.25μm, specific density 166.3μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
锗, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 333μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
锗, microfoil, 50x50mm, thinness 0.25μm, specific density 166.3μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
锗, rod, 25mm, diameter 2.0mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
锗, rod, 25mm, diameter 5mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
锗, rod, 50mm, diameter 5mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
锗, rod, 6mm, diameter 6.0mm, single crystal, 100%
锗, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.25mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.6mm, single crystal, -111, 100%
锗, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 3.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 4x4mm, thickness 0.05mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 0.5mm, single crystal, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 3.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 6x6mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
锗, sheet, 7x24mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%

社交媒体

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon

Merck

科研、开发、生产。

作为生命科学行业的全球领先供应商,我们致力于为科研、生物技术开发和生产,以及制药药物疗法开发和生产提供各类解决方案和服务。

© 2021年版权归德国达姆施塔特默克集团(Merck KGaA)及/或其附属公司所有。版权所有。

未经许可,严禁复制本网站上的任何资料。