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  • Chronic immune stimulation correlates with reduced phenylalanine turnover.

Chronic immune stimulation correlates with reduced phenylalanine turnover.

Current drug metabolism (2008-09-11)
G Neurauter, K Schröcksnadel, S Scholl-Bürgi, B Sperner-Unterweger, C Schubert, M Ledochowski, D Fuchs
ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with those of the adrenergic system. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma stimulates the biosynthesis of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is cofactor for several aromatic amino acid monooxygenases and thus is strongly involved in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). In macrophages, interferon-gamma also triggers the high output of reactive oxygen species, which can destroy the oxidation-labile BH4. Recent data suggest that oxidative loss of BH4 in chronic inflammatory conditions can reduce the biosynthesis of catecholamines, which may relate to disturbed adrenergic neurotransmitter pathways in patients.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-苯基丙氨酸, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
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Supelco
L-苯基丙氨酸, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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USP
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L-苯基丙氨酸, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
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SAFC
L-苯基丙氨酸