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  • How aluminum, an intracellular ROS generator promotes hepatic and neurological diseases: the metabolic tale.

How aluminum, an intracellular ROS generator promotes hepatic and neurological diseases: the metabolic tale.

Cell biology and toxicology (2013-03-07)
Sungwon Han, Joseph Lemire, Varun P Appanna, Christopher Auger, Zachary Castonguay, Vasu D Appanna
摘要

Metal pollutants are a global health risk due to their ability to contribute to a variety of diseases. Aluminum (Al), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant is implicated in anemia, osteomalacia, hepatic disorder, and neurological disorder. In this review, we outline how this intracellular generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers a metabolic shift towards lipogenesis in astrocytes and hepatocytes. This Al-evoked phenomenon is coupled to diminished mitochondrial activity, anerobiosis, and the channeling of α-ketoacids towards anti-oxidant defense. The resulting metabolic reconfiguration leads to fat accumulation and a reduction in ATP synthesis, characteristics that are common to numerous medical disorders. Hence, the ability of Al toxicity to create an oxidative environment promotes dysfunctional metabolic processes in astrocytes and hepatocytes. These molecular events triggered by Al-induced ROS production are the potential mediators of brain and liver disorders.

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铝, foil, thickness 0.45-0.55 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
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铝, granular, <1 mm, 99.7% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, ReagentPlus®, beads, 5-15 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, pellets, 3-12 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
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铝, evaporation slug, diam. × L 6.3 mm × 6.3 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, wire, diam. 0.58 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, ≤30 μm, spherical powder, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, foil, thickness 0.13 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, pellets, 3-8 mesh, ≥99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, ACS reagent, 99%, wire, wire diam. ~1.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
铝, rod, diam. × L 3.0 mm × 100 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
铝, IRMM®, certified reference material, 0.1 mm foil
铝, wire reel, 25m, diameter 0.25mm, as drawn, 99.5%
铝, wire reel, 10m, diameter 0.025mm, as drawn, 99.0+%
铝, honeycomb, 300x300mm, thickness 5mm, cell size 3.2mm, cell wall 0.025mm, core density 0.072g/cm3, phenolic adhesive (resin), 99.5%
铝, wire reel, 500m, diameter 0.5mm, as drawn, 99.5%
铝, mesh, 150x150mm, nominal aperture 0.38mm, wire diameter 0.25mm, 40x40 wires/inch, open area 37%, plain weave mesh
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 10mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 3.2mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, 16 pores/cm, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 30mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 6.35mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, 16 pores/cm, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 6.35mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, 2 pores/cm, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 6.35mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, 4 pores/cm, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 6.35mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, 8 pores/cm, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 300x400mm, thickness 6.35mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, foam, 33x140mm, thickness 20mm, bulk density 0.2g/cm3, porosity 0.93, aluminum 6101 grade, 98.5%
铝, honeycomb, 150x150mm, thickness 10mm, cell size 3.2mm, cell wall 0.025mm, core density 0g/cm3, phenolic adhesive (resin), 99.5%
铝, honeycomb, 150x150mm, thickness 52.3mm, cell size 6.3mm, cell wall 0.064mm, core density 0.083g/cm3, phenolic adhesive (resin), facing skin aluminum 0.55mm, 99.9%

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