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  • History of bioavailable lead and iron in the Greater North Sea and Iceland during the last millennium - a bivalve sclerochronological reconstruction.

History of bioavailable lead and iron in the Greater North Sea and Iceland during the last millennium - a bivalve sclerochronological reconstruction.

Marine pollution bulletin (2014-09-02)
Hilmar A Holland, Bernd R Schöne, Soraya Marali, Klaus P Jochum
ABSTRACT

We present the first annually resolved record of biologically available Pb and Fe in the Greater North Sea and Iceland during 1040-2004 AD based on shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica. The iron content in pre-industrial shells from the North Sea largely remained below the detection limit. Only since 1830, shell Fe levels rose gradually reflecting the combined effect of increased terrestrial runoff of iron-bearing sediments and eutrophication. Although the lead gasoline peak of the 20th century was well recorded by the shells, bivalves that lived during the medieval heyday of metallurgy showed four-fold higher shell Pb levels than modern specimens. Presumably, pre-industrial bivalves were offered larger proportions of resuspended (Pb-enriched) organics, whereas modern specimens receive fresh increased amounts of (Pb-depleted) phytoplankton. As expected, metal loads in the shells from Iceland were much lower. Our study confirms that bivalve shells provide a powerful tool for retrospective environmental biomonitoring.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
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铁, granular, 10-40 mesh, >99.99% trace metals basis
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铁, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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铅, powder, −100 mesh, 99.95% trace metals basis
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铅, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
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铁, chips, 99.98% trace metals basis
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铁, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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铁, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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铅, powder, −325 mesh, ≥99% trace metals basis
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铅, shot, <2 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
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铁, carbon coated magnetic, nanopowder, 25 nm avg. part. size, 99.5% trace metals basis
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铁, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
铁, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.1mm, hard, 99.5%
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铁, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
铁, rod, 200mm, diameter 2.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
铅, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
铅, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
铅, rod, 100mm, diameter 50mm, 99.95%
铁, rod, 50mm, diameter 5.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
铁, wire reel, 5m, diameter 0.025mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
铅, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
铁, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, hard, 99.5%
铅, wire reel, 1m, diameter 0.75mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
铁, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.38mm, hard, 99.5%
铅, rod, 500mm, diameter 6.35mm, 99.95%
铅, rod, 1000mm, diameter 3.2mm, 99.95%
铁, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.5mm, as rolled, 99.5%
铅, wire reel, 0.1m, diameter 1.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%