MilliporeSigma

Metabolomics Research

Illustrating a cell surrounded by structures of metabolites represented as a galaxy.

Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, or the small molecule substrates, intermediates and products of metabolism, within cells, biofluids, tissues, or organisms. These unique chemical fingerprints are left behind by cellular processes. Metabolomics research provides a biochemical synopsis of a biological system and the physiological impact of disease, nutrition, therapy, or genetic modifications on an organism.

Applications of Metabolomics

Metabolomics, with its wide-ranging applications, significantly influences pharmaceutical research by identifying disease biomarkers and assessing personalized medicine's toxicity. In functional genomics integration, it plays a pivotal role in predicting gene function by studying interactions among the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Microbial mining benefits from metabolomic insights for enhanced strain optimization, while plant metabolomics advances agriculture biotechnology through the study of plant metabolites. Environmental research employs metabolomics to test pollutant effects and optimize biofuel production, while nutritional research utilizes metabolomics for assessing nutrition levels and ensuring food safety. 


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The interaction of metabolites within a biological system is referred to as the metabolome. The metabolome is the complete set of metabolites in an organism or biological sample. Metabolites are compounds with low molecular weight, generally less than 1.5 KDa, which are the intermediates or products of biosynthesis/catabolism pathways. Examples include amino acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates, and lipids, which are often studied separately in lipidomics research. Primary metabolites are endogenous and directly involved in normal growth, development, and reproduction. Secondary metabolites are exogenous and not involved in these processes but have important ecological functions.

Metabolomic pathways are investigated utilizing metabolites, enzymes, separation tools, and metabolite analysis and labeling. Two common metabolic profiling techniques are targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Targeted analysis quantifies specific known metabolites, while untargeted analysis provides the global metabolic profile for both known and unknown metabolites. Metabolic fingerprinting is a rapid, global analysis without the intention of specifically identifying each metabolite.

A metabolomics workflow involves an integrated approach of sample preparation, standardization, calibration, separation methods, detection of metabolites, and data analysis. Common sample types include plasma, urine, saliva, tissue, and cells. Separation methods such as gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or capillary electrophoresis (CE) are paired with detection methods like mass spectrometry (MS). Analytical techniques commonly used in metabolite detection include MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Sophisticated tools and software are required for metabolomics data analysis, ensuring stringent compound identification and quantification, and accurate data interpretation.


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