Direct condensation of carboxylic acids with alcohols catalyzed by hafnium (IV) salts.
Ishihara K, et al.
Science, 290.5494, 1140-1142 (2000)
Visualization of the cytoskeletal elements in tissue culture cells by bloc-staining with hafnium chloride after rapid freezing and freeze-substitution fixation.
T Hatae et al.
Journal of electron microscopy, 33(2), 186-190 (1984-01-01)
Guoguang Liu et al.
Biomacromolecules, 9(3), 949-953 (2008-02-15)
The feasibility of a previously established method based on ozonolysis and hydrogenation reactions for the production of 9-hydroxynonanoic acid from oleic acid has been demonstrated. Metal catalyzed lactonization conditions have been used to convert 9-hydroxynonanoic acid into 1,11-dioxacycloicosane-2,12-dione, which is...
Lutz Ackermann et al.
Organic & biomolecular chemistry, 5(12), 1975-1978 (2007-06-07)
Two distinct economical catalysts for intramolecular hydroaminations of electronically unactivated alkenes with basic amines are described, which are based on (a) group 4 metal halides under basic reaction conditions or (b) Brønsted-acid organocatalysts.