International journal of phytoremediation, 22(8), 885-895 (2020-03-11)
This study has developed an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye by natural shells (NShs) chemically modified with levulinic acid (LA). Almond shell (ASh), walnut shell (WSh), and apricot kernel shell (AKSh) were...
Sarah Tschirner et al.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(8) (2018-07-28)
A mixture of hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and water was used as a new and unknown monophasic reaction solvent for fructose dehydration in order to produce HMF. HFIP is a low-boiling fluorous alcohol (b.p. 58 °C). Hence, HFIP can be recovered cost...
Huifang Ren et al.
Bioresource technology, 129, 616-619 (2013-01-23)
A highly selective approach to produce levulinic acid from cellulose was developed via microwave-assisted synthesis in SO3H-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs). The effects of reaction conditions and ionic liquid structures on the yield of levulinic acid have been investigated, where the...
Ronen Weingarten et al.
ChemSusChem, 5(7), 1280-1290 (2012-06-15)
We have developed a kinetic model for aqueous-phase production of levulinic acid from glucose using a homogeneous acid catalyst. The proposed model shows a good fit with experimental data collected in this study in a batch reactor. The model was...
Stijn Van de Vyver et al.
Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 48(29), 3497-3499 (2012-03-02)
Acid-catalyzed condensation of levulinic acid and phenol into high yields of diphenolic acid (>50%) is possible with a combination of sulfonated hyperbranched polymers and thiol promotors, either added as a physical mixture or bound to the polymer by ion-pairing.