46067

Sigma-Aldrich

Ethidium bromide solution

for fluorescence, ~1% in H2O

Synonym(s):
Homidium bromide, 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide, EtBr
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C21H20BrN3
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
394.31
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
3642536
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.32
Pricing and availability is not currently available.

Quality Level

grade

for fluorescence

concentration

~1% in H2O

fluorescence

λex 480 nm; λem 620 nm in H2O
λex 518 nm; λem 605 nm (bound to DNA)
λex 530 nm; λem 600 nm in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (upon binding to DNA)

storage temp.

2-8°C

SMILES string

Br-.CCn+1c(-c2ccccc2)c3cc(N)ccc3c4ccc(N)cc14

InChI

1S/C21H19N3.BrH/c1-2-24-20-13-16(23)9-11-18(20)17-10-8-15(22)12-19(17)21(24)14-6-4-3-5-7-14;/h3-13,23H,2,22H2,1H3;1H

InChI key

ZMMJGEGLRURXTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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Application

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids. It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA. Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.

Reconstitution

For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbonesHealth hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Hazard Codes

T

Risk Statement

23-68

Safety Statement

35-36/37-45

RIDADR

UN 2810 6.1 / PGIII

WGK Germany

WGK 2

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
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