HPA018322

Sigma-Aldrich

Anti-TOX antibody produced in rabbit

enhanced validation

Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution

Synonym(s):
Anti-Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein TOX, Anti-Thymus high mobility group box protein TOX
Human Protein Atlas Number:
Pricing and availability is not currently available.

biological source

rabbit

Quality Level

antibody form

affinity isolated antibody

antibody product type

primary antibodies

clone

polyclonal

product line

Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies

form

buffered aqueous glycerol solution

species reactivity

human

packaging

antibody small pack of 25 μL

enhanced validation

orthogonal RNAseq
Learn more about Antibody Enhanced Validation

application(s)

immunoblotting: 0.04-0.4 μg/mL
immunohistochemistry: 1:200-1:500

immunogen sequence

PDAPCLGPSPCLDPYYCNKFDGENMYMSMTEPSQDYVPASQSYPGPSLESEDFNIPPITPPSLPDHSLVHLNEVESGYHSLCHPMNHNGLLPFHPQN

conjugate

unconjugated

UniProt accession no.

shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.

−20°C

Gene Information

human ... TOX(9760)

General description

The gene thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) is mapped to human chromosome 8q12.1. TOX belongs to HMG (high-mobility group) box family of DNA-binding proteins. It is mainly expressed in the thymus.

Immunogen

Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein TOX recombinant protein epitope signature tag (PrEST)

Application

All Prestige Antibodies Powered by Atlas Antibodies are developed and validated by the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) project (www.proteinatlas.org)and as a result, are supported by the most extensive characterization in the industry.

The Human Protein Atlas project can be subdivided into three efforts: Human Tissue Atlas, Cancer Atlas, and Human Cell Atlas. The antibodies that have been generated in support of the Tissue and Cancer Atlas projects have been tested by immunohistochemistry against hundreds of normal and disease tissues and through the recent efforts of the Human Cell Atlas project, many have been characterized by immunofluorescence to map the human proteome not only at the tissue level but now at the subcellular level. These images and the collection of this vast data set can be viewed on the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) site by clicking on the Image Gallery link. To view these protocols and other useful information about Prestige Antibodies and the HPA, visit sigma.com/prestige.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) is important for T-cell selection, differentiation and maturation. TOX is up-regulated by pre-T cell receptor (TCR) and TCR activation of immature thymocytes. Presence of TOX results in expanded CD8+ and reduced CD4+ single positive thymocyte subpopulation. TOX promoter is hypermethylated in lung and breast cancer lines, resulting in down-regulation of TOX. However, down-regulation of TOX does not affect the proliferation or migration potential of the cells. TOX is required for IL (Interleukin)-15-mediated natural killer (NK) cell differentiation. In addition, TOX affects the expression of T-bet (T-box expressed in T cells) which plays important role in NK differentiation and maturation.

Features and Benefits

Prestige Antibodies® are highly characterized and extensively validated antibodies with the added benefit of all available characterization data for each target being accessible via the Human Protein Atlas portal linked just below the product name at the top of this page. The uniqueness and low cross-reactivity of the Prestige Antibodies® to other proteins are due to a thorough selection of antigen regions, affinity purification, and stringent selection. Prestige antigen controls are available for every corresponding Prestige Antibody and can be found in the linkage section.

Every Prestige Antibody is tested in the following ways:
  • IHC tissue array of 44 normal human tissues and 20 of the most common cancer type tissues.
  • Protein array of 364 human recombinant protein fragments.

Linkage

Corresponding Antigen APREST73801.

Physical form

Solution in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.2, containing 40% glycerol and 0.02% sodium azide

Legal Information

Prestige Antibodies is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Disclaimer

Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals.

RIDADR

NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany

WGK 1

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.
Tessema M
PLoS ONE, 7, e34850-e34850 (2012)
Lihi Atzmony et al.
Acta dermato-venereologica, 100(15), adv00230-adv00230 (2020-06-20)
Recent studies suggest that folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF), the most common variant of mycosis fungoides (MF), presents with 2 distinct clinicopathological stages: early indolent stage and more aggressive advanced/tumour stage. To further characterize these stages, miR-155 expression was studied with...
L Y McGirt et al.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 30(9), 1497-1502 (2016-06-28)
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are skin malignancies including mycosis fungoides (MF) and CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). In early disease, CTCL can be difficult to diagnose, especially in MF for which there is no reliable diagnostic marker. MF/CTCL have increased expression...
Anne M R Schrader et al.
Archives of dermatological research, 308(6), 423-427 (2016-05-18)
Thymocyte selection-associated high-mobility group box (TOX) is aberrantly expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. In a recent study, TOX expression was noted unexpectedly in the follicle center (germinal center) B-cells of reactive lymph nodes and tonsils, used as external controls. To...
Paola Sebastiani et al.
American journal of hematology, 83(3), 189-195 (2007-10-06)
We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in: (1) the beta-globin gene-like cluster, (2) quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously associated with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration on chromosomes 6q, 8q, and Xp, and (3) candidate genes that could effect HbF levels, in...

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