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Murashige and Skoog Modified Basal Salt Mixture

powder, suitable for plant cell culture

Murashige and Skoog Modified Basal Salt Mixture, w/o Ammonium Nitrate



Quality Level


cell culture | plant: suitable

Featured Industry


storage temp.



Murashige and Skoog Modified Basal Salt Mixture has been used:
  • to promote root development for internode stem suckers
  • to promote shoot growth for the calluses
  • for low nitrogen (LN) treatment, for the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana

Murashige and Skoog medium is a widely used plant tissue culture growth medium. M&S Basal Medium contains macronutrients that include high levels of nitrate and organic additives such as agar, sugars, vitamins and growth regulators. Important growth regulators frequently added to M&S include IAA (auxin/morphogen) and the Kinetin (cytokinin/cell division promoter).

Formula variant

Without NH4NO3
With the macro- and micronutrients described by Murashige and Skoog (1962).

Media Formulation

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient mixtures and vitamin mixtures. Murashige and Skoog Salt mixture (M2909) contain the macronutrients and micronutrients of the original classic formulation without ammonium nitrate. It can be combined with M&S vitamins or Gamborg′s vitamins and supplemented with sucrose, agar, auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


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Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Ox. Sol. 3

Storage Class Code

5.1B - Oxidizing hazardous materials

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Interactions of abscisic acid and sugar signalling in the regulation of leaf senescence
Pourtau N, et al.
Planta, 219(5), 765-772 (2004)
Iron homeostasis alteration in transgenic tobacco overexpressing ferritin
Van WO, et al.
The Plant Journal, 17(1), 93-97 (1999)
Callus induction and plant regeneration from mature embryos of a diverse set of wheat genotypes
Zale JM, et al.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 76(3), 277-281 (2004)
Gabriele B Monshausen et al.
The Plant cell, 21(8), 2341-2356 (2009-08-06)
Mechanical stimulation of plants triggers a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) increase that is thought to link the touch stimulus to appropriate growth responses. We found that in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, external and endogenously generated mechanical forces consistently trigger rapid and transient...

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