Pilocarpine hydrochloride

≥99% (titration), powder

(3S,4R)-4,5-Dihydro-3-ethyl-4-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-ylmethyl)-2(3H)-furanone hydrochloride
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C11H16N2O2 · HCl
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
Pricing and availability is not currently available.

Quality Level


≥99% (titration)




HPLC: suitable
gas chromatography (GC): suitable




202-205 °C (lit.)


H2O: 100 mg/mL

Featured Industry

Forensics and Toxicology

relevant disease(s)


SMILES string




InChI key


Gene Information

human ... CHRM1(1128), CHRM2(1129), CHRM3(1131), CHRM4(1132), CHRM5(1133)

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Pilocarpine hydrochloride has been used to stimulate salivary secretions in mice. It has also been used to induce status epilepticus(SE) in rat.


5, 10, 50 g in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Pilocarpine is alkaloid isolated from the shrub Pilocarpus species. It comprises imidazole ring and γ- lactone rings in its structure. It has cholinergic potential and it stimulates the parasympathetic system. Pilocarpine is also effective for treating glaucoma. It stimulates ciliary muscle contraction by binding to muscarinic M3 receptors. It is effective in treating corneal dryness in Sjogren′s syndrome. It is a secretagogue, which improves salivary secretions in Xerostomia or a dry mouth condition in Sjogren′s syndrome patients and in radiotherapy patients with head and neck carcinoma.
Nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist; used to produce an experimental model of epilepsy.

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for ADME Tox and Neuroscience research. Discover more featured ADME Tox and Neuroscience products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at sigma.com/discover-bsm.
This compound is featured on the Acetylcholine Receptors (Muscarinic) page of the Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction. To browse other handbook pages, click here.
This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.


Hygroscopic, light sensitive

Other Notes

Shelf life of the powder is at least five years.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC


Skull and crossbones

Signal Word


Hazard Statements


UN 1544PSN2 6.1 / PGII

WGK Germany


Double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study of pilocarpine to salvage salivary gland function during radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancer
Gornitsky M, et al.
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, 98(1), 45-52 (2004)
Biomarker profiles in serum and saliva of experimental Sjogren's syndrome: associations with specific autoimmune manifestations
Delaleu N, et al.
Arthritis Research & Therapy, 10(1), R22-R22 (2008)
Longitudinal microPET imaging of brain glucose metabolism in rat lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy
Goffin K, et al.
Experimental neurology, 217(1), 205-209 (2009)
In vivo mapping of temporospatial changes in glucose utilization in rat brain during epileptogenesis: an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-small animal positron emission tomography study
Guo Y, et al.
Neuroscience, 162(4), 972-979 (2009)
Pilocarpine hydrochloride for the treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjogren's syndrome in Taiwan?a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Wu CH, et al.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi, 105(10), 796-803 (2006)
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