Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP, EC 18.104.22.168) is an abundant, zinc-dependent eukaryotic nuclear enzyme. PARP is composed of an N-terminal DNA binding domain, a central regulatory automodification domain that accepts poly (ADP-ribose) and a C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP contains a conserved proteinase recognition site (DEVD) a target for several caspases (e.g. Caspase 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9).
By immunoblotting, the antibody may also react with a cleavage product of 85 kDa in some preparations.
synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 2-20 of human or bovine PARP with a C-terminal added lysine, conjugated to KLH.
Anti-PARP antibody produced in rabbit has been used in western blotting.
Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) specifically recognizes single or double strand DNA breaks produced by various genotoxic agents. Thus, it is a molecular nick sensor, that following binding to damaged DNA converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to nicotinamide and branched polymers of various poly (ADP-ribose)(PAR) on glutamate residues of a limited number of nuclear acceptor proteins, including PARP itself. The increased negative charge of modified PARP results in loss of interaction with DNA due to electrostatic repulsion. The poly (ADP-ribose) moiety is quickly degraded by a PARP-associated Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Also, PARP modification of nuclear proteins is involved in chromatin structure formation, the regulation of differentiation, proliferation, development, apoptosis, gene expression, response to heart and brain ischemia/reperfusion, and malignant transformation. Rapid activation of PARP may deplete NAD, slow glycolysis, electron transport and ATP formation and cause cell dysfunction and cell death. Cleavage of PARP into fragments of 24 kD and 89 kDa by caspase-3 is an early marker of apoptosis. Necrotic cleavage of PARP generates different fragments.
Solution in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, containing 1% BSA and 15 mM sodium azide
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