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8.20171

Sigma-Aldrich

Bromine

for synthesis

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Synonym(s):
Bromine
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
159.81
MDL number:
EC Index Number:
231-778-1

vapor pressure

233 hPa ( 20 °C)

Quality Level

form

liquid

reaction suitability

reagent type: oxidant

kinematic viscosity

0.314 cSt(20 °C)

bp

58.8 °C/1013 hPa

mp

-7.3 °C

solubility

35 g/L

density

3.12 g/cm3 at 20 °C (liquid)

storage temp.

15-25°C

InChI

1S/BrH/h1H/p-1

InChI key

CPELXLSAUQHCOX-UHFFFAOYSA-M

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This Item
1.019482775761.01945
Bromine for synthesis

8.20171

Bromine

-
Bromine for analysis EMSURE® ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur

1.01948

Bromine

-
Bromine ACS reagent, ≥99.5%

277576

Bromine

Essential Grade
Bromine extra pure

1.01945

Bromine

-
solubility

35 g/L

solubility

35 g/L

solubility

-

solubility

35 g/L

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

-

Quality Level

100

density

3.12 g/cm3 at 20 °C (liquid)

density

3.12 g/cm3 at 20 °C (liquid)

density

3.119 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)

density

3.12 g/cm3 at 20 °C (liquid)

form

liquid

form

liquid

form

liquid

form

liquid

mp

-7.3 °C

mp

-7.3 °C

mp

−7.2 °C (lit.)

mp

-7.3 °C

General description

for synthesis

Application

Bromine can be used as an oxidizing agent for the oxidation of:
  • Primary alcohols to either aldehydes or esters and secondary alcohols to give ketones.
  • Alcohols or diols to tetrahydrofurans in the presence of silver(I) salts.
  • Enediol bis-trimethylsilyl ethers to α-diketones.
  • Aldehydes to esters in the presence of alcohol solvents and sodium bicarbonate buffer.
  • Aliphatic and aromatic thiols to disulfides.

Bromine can also be used along with other co-reactants such as hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPA) and bis(tributyltin) oxide (HBD) to selectively oxidize secondary alcohols. However, bromine/nickel carboxylates convert 1,4-diols to γ-butyrolactones by selective oxidation of the primary alcohols.

Analysis Note

Assay (iodometric)≥ 99.0 %AppearanceBrownish-red fuming liquid

signalword

Danger

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 1 Inhalation - Aquatic Acute 1 - Eye Dam. 1 - Skin Corr. 1A

Storage Class

6.1B - Non-combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

wgk_germany

WGK 2

flash_point_f

Not applicable

flash_point_c

Not applicable


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Preparation of disulfides by the oxidation of thiols using bromine
Wu Xiaoming, et al.
Synthetic Communications, 26(1) (1996)
Bromine
Goehring RR
eEROS (Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis) (2001)
Bromine as an oxidant for direct conversion of aldehydes to esters
Williams DR, et al.
Tetrahedron Letters, 29(40) (1988)

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