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Phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L)

from Phaseolus vulgaris

Quality Level


non-sterile; 0.2 μm filtered


>95% (SDS-PAGE)


lyophilized (clear, colorless solution after reconstitution)


pkg of 5 mg





shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.


General description

PHA-L is purified from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean) by standard chromatographic techniques.
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin extract from the red kidney bean, consists of only L-type subunits (isolectin L4, "leuko-agglutinin"). It is an N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose sugar-specific lectin. PHA consists of five isolectins (L4E0, L3E1, L2E2, L1E3, L0E4) each being a tetramer held together by noncovalent forces. The subunits L (leukocyte reactive) have a high affinity for lymphocyte surface receptors, but little for those of erythrocytes, and are responsible for the mitogenic properties of the isolectins. E (erythrocyte reactive) is responsible for the erythrocyte-agglutinating properties.


Phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L) consists of only L-type subunits (isolectin L4, "leuko-agglutinin"), and is well suited for high-efficiency induction and the functional analysis of T-lymphocytes. It is highly purified and tested for high-efficiency stimulation of human lymphocytes. It is also used as positive controls for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulation.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) has mitogenic and potent cell agglutinating activities. It binds to T-cell membranes and stimulates cell division and metabolic activity. PHA has the ability to stimulate close contacts between cell membranes.


Biological activity: <5μg/ml for maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation) with human peripheral blood lymphocytes


PHA-L is a tetramer of 4 L-type subunits held together by noncovalent forces.

Preparation Note

Working concentration: 1 to 5 μg/ml
Approximately 1 to 5 μg/ml for the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes
Storage conditions (working solution): -15 to -25 °C
The reconstituted solution is stable at -15 to -25 °C.
Note: Store the reconstituted solution in aliquots at -15 to -25 °C.
Avoid repeated freezing and thawing.

Other Notes

For life science research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

J L Ceuppens et al.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 141(11), 3868-3874 (1988-12-01)
T cell proliferation induced by the lectin PHA requires the presence of monocytes. Here, we report that IL-6 represents part of the monocyte-derived helper activity for human T cell stimulation with PHA. Resting T cells isolated from peripheral blood or
Abolfazl Movafagh et al.
Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR, 10(4), 895-903 (2011-10-01)
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin, obtained from the red kidney bean that binds to the membranes of T-cells and stimulates metabolic activity, cell division, etc. The object of this research was the comparison between self made PHA (Indigenous) and imported
Johannes Nowatzky et al.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (159) (2020-06-02)
Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are notoriously difficult to isolate in high purity given the current methods of Treg enrichment. These methods are based on the identification of Treg through several activation-dependent cellular surface markers with varying expression levels in
An optimized IFN-γ ELISpot assay for the sensitive and standardized monitoring of CMV protein-reactive effector cells of cell-mediated immunity.
Barabas S, et al.
BMC Immunology, 18(1), 14-14 (2017)
ELISPOT Assay to Measure Peptide-specific IFN-γ Production.
Wykes M N and Renia L.
Bio-protocol, 7(11) (2017)

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