Benzoic acid

meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E210, 99.5-100.5% (alkalimetric)

Linear Formula:
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

vapor density

4.21 (vs air)

vapor pressure

10 mmHg ( 132 °C)


99.5-100.5% (alkalimetric)



autoignition temp.

1061 °F


meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E210


oxidisable substances, complies
residual solvents, complies
≤0.0005% heavy metals (as Pb)
≤0.03% halogen compounds (as Cl)
≤0.7% water (Karl Fischer)

ign. residue

≤0.05% (as SO4)


≤0.5% loss on drying, 3 h (via H2SO4)


3-5 (20 °C, 0.1%)


249 °C (lit.)


121-125 °C (lit.)


water: soluble (2.9 g/l at 25 °C)

cation traces

As: ≤3 mg/kg
Cu: ≤10 mg/kg
Hg: ≤1 mg/kg
Pb: ≤2 mg/kg
Zn: ≤20 mg/kg


complies for appearance of solution
complies for reaction against H2SO4

SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Benzoic acid is an aromatic monocarboxylic acid. It occurs in the form of colorless leaflets or needles. It reacts with hydrogenating reagents to afford hexahydrobenzoic acid. On decomposition (by heating) in the presence of lime or alkali, it affords benzene and carbon dioxide. It can be synthesized by the cobalt or manganese catalyzed atmospheric oxidation of toluene.


Benzoic acid may be employed as a standard in the quantitative and calorimetric studies. It may be employed as an intermediate in the synthesis of the following:
  • paints
  • pigments
  • varnish
  • wetting agents
  • aroma compounds
  • benzoyl chloride
  • benzotrichloride
It was used to investigate the mechanism of complex addition reaction of hydroxyl radicals with various aromatic compounds.


CorrosionHealth hazard

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Target Organs


Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

249.8 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

121 °C - closed cup

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Hydroxylation by electrochemically generated OH. radicals. Mono-and polyhydroxylation of benzoic acid: products and isomer distribution.
Oturan MA and Pinson J.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 99(38), 13948-13954 (1995)
Eagleson M.
Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry, 122-122 (1994)
S Nacht et al.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 4(1), 31-37 (1981-01-01)
The transepidermal penetration and metabolic disposition of 14C-benzoyl peroxide were assessed in vitro (excised human skin) and in vivo (rhesus monkey). In vitro, the benzoyl peroxide penetrated into the skin, through the stratum corneum or the follicular openings, or both...
Renbo Wei et al.
Macromolecular rapid communications, 34(4), 330-334 (2013-01-03)
A new approach is developed to fabricate highly oriented mono-domain LCE nano/microstructures through micro-molding in capillaries. Gratings and microwires as two typical examples are fabricated and characterized by polarizing optical microscopy, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The gratings with...
Ly Dieu Tran et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(44), 18237-18240 (2012-10-30)
An auxiliary-assisted, copper catalyzed or promoted sulfenylation of benzoic acid derivative β-C-H bonds and benzylamine derivative γ-C-H bonds has been developed. The method employs disulfide reagents, copper(II) acetate, and DMSO solvent at 90-130 °C. Application of this methodology to the...

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