Propionic acid

ACS reagent, ≥99.5%

Propanyl acid, Acid C3, Propanoic acid
Linear Formula:
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level


ACS reagent

vapor density

2.55 (vs air)

vapor pressure

2.4 mmHg ( 20 °C)



autoignition temp.

955 °F

expl. lim.

12.1 %

analyte chemical class(es)

amino acids


≤0.002% Carbonyl compounds
≤0.10% Readily oxidizable substances (as HCOOH)
≤0.15% water

evapn. residue



APHA: ≤20

refractive index

n20/D 1.386 (lit.)


141 °C (lit.)


−24-−23 °C (lit.)


H2O: soluble


0.993 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)

cation traces

heavy metals (as Pb): ≤0.001%

SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Propionic acid (PA) also known as propanoic acid is a short chain fatty acid mainly used as food preservative. It is one of the main metabolic end product formed during the fermentation of undigested food in the colon by the microbiota. Its manufacture by glycerol/glucose co-fermentation using Propionibacterium acidipropionici has been reported. Crystal structure study reveals that PA crystals are monoclinic with space group P21/c.
Propionic acid (PA) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid, which in its pure state exists as a colorless corrosive liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is miscible in water. Industrially it is produced by hydrocarboxylation of ethylene in presence nickel carbonyl as a catalyst. PA has been found to reduce food intake, lower the fatty acids content in plasma and liver, might improve tissue insulin sensitivity and exerts immunosuppressive actions. Propionic acid is an excellent raw material as it is stable, cheap and safe and can even be used as a food additive.


Propionic acid may be used to alter limestone in order to increase its ability of CO2 uptake.


100, 4×100, 500 mL in glass bottle

Signal Word


Hazard Statements


Eye Dam. 1 - Flam. Liq. 3 - Skin Corr. 1B - STOT SE 3

Target Organs

Respiratory system


3 - Flammable liquids

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

129.2 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

54 °C - closed cup

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Derrick F MacFabe et al.
Behavioural brain research, 217(1), 47-54 (2010-10-13)
Recent evidence suggests that a variety of environmental factors, including dietary and gastrointestinal agents, may contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we administered propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid that is used as a food preservative and...
The crystal structure of propionic acid.
Strieter FJ, et al.
Acta Crystallographica, 15(12), 1233-1239 (1962)
Yin Liu et al.
Current microbiology, 62(1), 152-158 (2010-06-15)
Cosubstrates fermentation is such an effective strategy for increasing subject metabolic products that it could be available and studied in propionic acid production, using glycerol and glucose as carbon resources. The effects of glycerol, glucose, and their mixtures on the...
Enhancement of CO2 capture capacity by modifying limestone with propionic acid.
Sun R, et al.
Powder Technology, 233, 8-14 (2013)
Nucleophilic ?-Carbon Activation of Propionic Acid as a 3-Carbon Synthon by Carbene Organocatalysis
Jin, Zhichao, et al.
Chemistry?A European Journal , 21 (26), 9360-9363 (2015)
Separation of Propionic acid; Acetic acid; Heptanoic acid; Isobutyric acid; Valeric acid; Isocaproic acid; Butyric acid; Isovaleric acid
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In this study, SPME was used for the analysis of free fatty acids in Parmesan cheese using a 65 μm Carbowax/divinylbenzene (DVB) SPME fiber. Headspace extraction of the cheese sample was conducted at 65 °C for 15 minutes and analyzed by GC with FID detection. SPME is ideal for analyzing the volatiles associated with solid food samples. The phase chemistry of the Nukol GC column provides excellent peak shape of acidic compounds.
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Separation of Acetone; Acetic acid; Propionic acid; Ethyl butyrate; Ethanol; Isoamyl acetate; Isobutyric acid; 3-Methyl-2-butanol; Methyl acetate; 1-Propanol; Acetal, ≥98%, FG; 2-Methyl-1-pentanol; Butyl acetate; Ethyl propionate; 3-Pentanol; 2-Pentanol, 98%; Ethyl isobutyrate; Isobutyl acetate; Acetaldehyde; Furfural; Butyric acid; Methanol; Ethyl acetate
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