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61135

Sigma-Aldrich

Crystal Violet

for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist., Vit.), indicator (pH 0.1-2.0)

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Synonym(s):
Basic Violet 3, Gentian Violet, Hexamethylpararosaniline chloride, Methyl Violet 10B
Linear Formula:
C25H30N3Cl
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
407.98
Colour Index Number:
42555
Beilstein:
3580948
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
MA.02

grade

for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist., Vit.)
indicator (pH 0.1-2.0)

Quality Level

form

powder

visual transition interval

0.1-2.0, yellow-green to blue-violet

mp

205 °C (dec.) (lit.)

density

1.190 g/cm3

ε (extinction coefficient)

≥1750 at 585-595  nm in water

suitability

suitable for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist., Vit.)

antibiotic activity spectrum

fungi

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology

Mode of action

cell membrane | interferes
enzyme | inhibits

storage temp.

room temp

SMILES string

[Cl-].CN(C)c1ccc(cc1)\C(c2ccc(cc2)N(C)C)=C3/C=C\C(C=C3)=[N+](/C)C

InChI

1S/C25H30N3.ClH/c1-26(2)22-13-7-19(8-14-22)25(20-9-15-23(16-10-20)27(3)4)21-11-17-24(18-12-21)28(5)6;/h7-18H,1-6H3;1H/q+1;/p-1

InChI key

ZXJXZNDDNMQXFV-UHFFFAOYSA-M

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This Item
C0775C615832675
Crystal Violet for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist., Vit.), indicator (pH 0.1-2.0)

Sigma-Aldrich

61135

Crystal Violet

Crystal Violet certified by the Biological Stain Commission

Sigma-Aldrich

C0775

Crystal Violet

Crystal Violet ACS reagent, ≥90.0% anhydrous basis

Sigma-Aldrich

C6158

Crystal Violet

Crystal Violet indicator for the determination of the redox potential, S. No.: 785

Sigma-Aldrich

32675

Crystal Violet

form

powder

form

powder

form

powder

form

powder

mp

205 °C (dec.) (lit.)

mp

205 °C (dec.) (lit.)

mp

205 °C (dec.) (lit.)

mp

205 °C (dec.) (lit.)

density

1.190 g/cm3

density

1.19 g/cm3 at 20 °C

density

1.19 g/cm3 at 20 °C

density

1.190 g/cm3

ε (extinction coefficient)

≥1750 at 585-595  nm in water

ε (extinction coefficient)

-

ε (extinction coefficient)

-

ε (extinction coefficient)

-

suitability

suitable for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist., Vit.)

suitability

-

suitability

passes test for sensitivity as indicator

suitability

complies for sensitivity

General description

Crystal violet, also known as Basic Violet 3 or Gentian Violet, is a basic, cationic aminoarylmethane dye. It is the N-hexamethylated derivative of pararosaniline and bears a lipophilic cation. It is primarily used in bacteriology and microscopy as the primary stain in Gram staining to classify and distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is indicator grade, exhibiting a color transition from yellow-green in acidic conditions to blue-violet in basic conditions. It also possesses antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Application

  • Crystal violet is mainly used in Gram staining and its variants, and for staining amyloid, bacterial components, and vascular plant tissues.
  • It is used in polychrome staining of epoxy resin sections, viability staining of cultured neurons, and confocal optical sectioning to analyze meiotic structures.
  • It is also employed in the acridine orange-crystal violet staining of intracellular bacteria, microsporidian spores, and cytological smears.

Biochem/physiol Actions

The antimicrobial properties of crystal violet are due to free radical generation and the formation of unionized dye-bacteria complexes. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and cell wall formation and is especially effective against Gram-positive bacteria.

Principle

Gram staining is used to differentiate bacteria based on their cell wall structure. Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker cell wall with more peptidoglycan and less lipid content, while gram-negative bacteria have a thinner cell wall with less peptidoglycan and more lipid content. During the staining process, crystal violet is applied to the bacteria, followed by the iodine to form a complex that fixes the dye. A decolorizer is then used to remove the dye from gram-negative bacteria by dissolving their lipid layer. Gram-positive bacteria retain the dye due to the dehydration and shrinking of their cell walls. A counterstain, such as safranin or basic fuchsin, is applied to impart a pink color to decolorized gram-negative bacteria.

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Aquatic Acute 1 - Aquatic Chronic 1 - Carc. 1B - Eye Dam. 1 - Muta. 2

Storage Class Code

6.1C - Combustible, acute toxic Cat.3 / toxic compounds or compounds which causing chronic effects

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

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Gentian Violet meets USP testing specifications

Sigma-Aldrich

G2039

Gentian Violet

Gentian Violet United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

USP

1290002

Gentian Violet

Methyl violet for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist.), indicator (pH 0.1-2.0), mixture of polymethylated pararosaniline hydrochlorides

Sigma-Aldrich

69710

Methyl violet

Safranin O for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist.), indicator (pH 0.3-1.0)

Sigma-Aldrich

84120

Safranin O

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J.A. Kiernan
Histological and Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice (2015)
Conn's Biological Stains
Kiernan & Horobin
Conn?s Biological Stains (2002)
Klaus Hunger
Industrial Dyes: Chemistry, Properties, Applications, 47-47 (2007)
Weixiao Liu et al.
Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology, 31(3), 127-132 (2004-04-08)
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