greener alternative

technical, ~90% (sum of enantiomers, GC)

(+)-Carvene, (+)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene, (R)-4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

vapor density

4.7 (vs air)

vapor pressure

<3 mmHg ( 14.4 °C)




~90% (sum of enantiomers, GC)

optical activity

[α]20/D +112±5°, c = 10% in ethanol

expl. lim.

6.1 %

greener alternative product characteristics

Waste Prevention
Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
Use of Renewable Feedstocks
Learn more about the Principles of Green Chemistry.

refractive index

n20/D 1.473 (lit.)


176-177 °C (lit.)


water: insoluble


0.842 g/mL at 20 °C (lit.)

greener alternative category


storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

(R)-(+)-Limonene is an optically active (R) form of limonene. Limonene is a 10-carbon cyclohexanoid monoterpene. It is widely employed in cosmetic industry.
(R)-(+)-Limonene is present in the peel oil from citrus fruits. It is the most commonly used fragrance materials in technical products and in fine fragrances. It is the major constituent of the essential oil extracted from Anethum sowa Roxb. (Indian dill). Racemic limonene undergoes enantio-selective and enantio-specific conversion to (R)-(+)-α-terpineol byPenicillium digitatum mycelia. Biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-limonene by fungi has been investigated.


(R)-(+)-Limonene has been used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo action of limonene against Leishmania species.

Signal Word


Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


UN 2052 3 / PGIII

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

123.8 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

51 °C - closed cup

Antimicrobial activity profiles of the two enantiomers of limonene and carvone isolated from the oils of Mentha spicata and Anethum sowa.
Aggarwal KK, et al.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(1), 59-63 (2002)
J C Demyttenaere et al.
Phytochemistry, 57(2), 199-208 (2001-05-31)
The biotransformation of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(-)-limonene by fungi was investigated. More than 60 fungal cultures were screened for their ability to bioconvert the substrate, using solid phase microextraction as the monitoring technique. After screening, the best fungal strains were selected...
Bioconversion of (R)-(+)-limonene by P. digitatum (NRRL 1202)
Tan Q, et al.
Process. Biochem., 33(1), 29-37 (1998)
Denise C Arruda et al.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 63(9), 643-649 (2009-03-27)
Limonene is a monoterpene that has antitumoral, antibiotic and antiprotozoal activity. In this study we demonstrate the activity of limonene against Leishmania species in vitro and in vivo. Limonene killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentrations of...
Cedric S Graebin et al.
European journal of medicinal chemistry, 45(4), 1524-1528 (2010-02-02)
The synthesis and in vitro activity of R(+)-Limonene derivatives against Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi strains are reported. Seven compounds have shown better in vitro activity against Leishmania (V.)braziliensis than the standard drug pentamidine. Additionally, we have identified two promising new...

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