All Photos(4)



Insulin from bovine pancreas

≥25 USP units/mg (HPLC), powder

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:



Quality Level

specific activity

≥25 USP units/mg (HPLC)


≤0.5 EU/mg endotoxin


water: 2 mg/mL, clear, colorless (pH: 2)

cation traces

Zn: ≤1.0%

UniProt accession no.

shipped in


storage temp.


InChI key


Gene Information

cow ... INS(280829)

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50, 100, 250, 500 mg in poly bottle
1 g in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Two-chain polypeptide hormone produced by the β-cells of pancreatic islets. Its molecular weight is ~5800 Da. The α and β chains are joined by two interchain disulfide bonds. The α chain contains an intrachain disulfide bond. Insulin regulates the cellular uptake, utilization, and storage of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids and inhibits the breakdown of glycogen, protein, and fat.

Other Notes

InChI: 1S/C254H377N65O75S6/c1-29-131(24)205(312-192(334)103-256)250(389)317-204(130(22)23)246(385)287-158(74-81-199(344)345)216(355)281-155(70-77-188(260)330)220(359)307-183-116-399-400-117-184-242(381)305-177(110-321)238(377)293-161(87-122(6)7)223(362)294-167(94-139-52-60-145(324)61-53-139)226(365)282-153(68-75-186(258)328)217(356)289-160(86-121(4)5)221(360)284-157(73-80-198(342)343)219(358)301-173(100-189(261)331)233(372)297-169(96-141-56-64-147(326)65-57-141)229(368)308-182(241(380)303-175(253(393)394)102-191(263)333)115-398-396-113-180(212(351)270-106-193(335)277-152(71-78-196(338)339)215(354)280-150(50-41-83-268-254(264)265)210(349)269-107-194(336)278-165(92-137-45-35-31-36-46-137)225(364)296-166(93-138-47-37-32-38-48-138)228(367)298-170(97-142-58-66-148(327)67-59-142)236(375)318-206(135(28)323)251(390)319-84-42-51-185(319)244(383)285-151(49-39-40-82-255)213(352)276-134(27)252(391)392)310-248(387)202(128(18)19)315-234(373)163(89-124(10)11)291-227(366)168(95-140-54-62-146(325)63-55-140)295-222(361)159(85-120(2)3)288-207(346)132(25)274-214(353)156(72-79-197(340)341)286-245(384)201(127(16)17)314-235(374)164(90-125(12)13)292-231(370)172(99-144-105-267-119-273-144)300-237(376)176(109-320)279-195(337)108-271-211(350)179(112-395-397-114-181(309-243(183)382)240(379)275-133(26)208(347)304-178(111-322)239(378)316-203(129(20)21)249(388)311-184)306-224(363)162(88-123(8)9)290-230(369)171(98-143-104-266-118-272-143)299-218(357)154(69-76-187(259)329)283-232(371)174(101-190(262)332)302-247(386)200(126(14)15)313-209(348)149(257)91-136-43-33-30-34-44-136/h30-38,43-48,52-67,104-105,118-135,149-185,200-206,320-327H,29,39-42,49-51,68-103,106-117,255-257H2,1-28H3,(H2,258,328)(H2,259,329)(H2,260,330)(H2,261,331)(H2,262,332)(H2,263,333)(H,266,272)(H,267,273)(H,269,349)(H,270,351)(H,271,350)(H,274,353)(H,275,379)(H,276,352)(H,277,335)(H,278,336)(H,279,337)(H,280,354)(H,281,355)(H,282,365)(H,283,371)(H,284,360)(H,285,383)(H,286,384)(H,287,385)(H,288,346)(H,289,356)(H,290,369)(H,291,366)(H,292,370)(H,293,377)(H,294,362)(H,295,361)(H,296,364)(H,297,372)(H,298,367)(H,299,357)(H,300,376)(H,301,358)(H,302,386)(H,303,380)(H,304,347)(H,305,381)(H,306,363)(H,307,359)(H,308,368)(H,309,382)(H,310,387)(H,311,388)(H,312,334)(H,313,348)(H,314,374)(H,315,373)(H,316,378)(H,317,389)(H,318,375)(H,338,339)(H,340,341)(H,342,343)(H,344,345)(H,391,392)(H,393,394)(H4,264,265,268)/t131-,132-,133-,134-,135+,149-,150-,151-,152-,153-,154-,155-,156-,157-,158-,159-,160-,161-,162-,163-,164-,165-,166-,167-,168-,169-,170-,171-,172-,173-,174-,175-,176-,177-,178-,179-,180-,181-,182-,183-,184-,185-,200-,201-,202-,203-,204-,205-,206-/m0/s1

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

  1. Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?

    If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.

  2. What is the comparison between International Units (IU) and USP units for insulin?

    The international unit (IU) of insulin is based on the International Standard Preparation of Bioassay (1958). The standard preparation is a mixture of 52% bovine and 48% porcine insulin, containing 24 units/mg. Reference: Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed., p. 392. High purity bovine pancreatic insulin typically assays at approximately 27 USP units per mg. So the IU and USP unit are not identical, but they are approximately 1:1.

  3. What can be used to make a solution of insulin?

    Insulin is soluble in dilute acids and alkalis. The solubility of insulin is tested at 2 mg/mL in water (acidified to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid). One can also use 1 mL of water acidified to pH 2 with 10 μL of glacial acetic acid to dissolve 2 mg of insulin. A 10 mg/mL solution of bovine insulin in 25 mM HEPES at pH 8.2 is offered as Product No. I0516.

  4. How can I store the insulin solution?  How long?

    The USP recommends that solutions of insulin be stored at 2-8°C. It is not recommended to freeze solutions of insulin, as it can aggregate. Sterile solutions should be stable for at least 1 year at 2-8°C.

  5. What is the amino acid sequence for insulin?

    The sequence and structure of insulin can be found on the product information sheet (under Documents, above).

  6. How many units of insulin are present in my vial of Product I5500, Insulin from bovine pancreas?

    Product No. I5500 has a specification of not less than 27 USP units/mg.  The exact value for the product received can be found the on lot-specific Certificate of Analysis.

  7. How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?

    The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.

  8. How do I find price and availability?

    There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.

  9. What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?

    Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product. 

  10. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

Denise Laskowski et al.
Molecular reproduction and development, 85(7), 599-611 (2018-05-11)
Insulin functions as a regulator of metabolism and plays an important role in reproduction. Hyperinsulinemia is often observed in patients with obesity and diabetes type 2 and is known to impair fertility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partly...
Mohamed R Ben Khedher et al.
PeerJ, 6, e4166-e4166 (2018-01-16)
Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg After two weeks of treatment, the lower dose of sage MetOH extract decreased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during an oral glucose...
Felix Weis et al.
Nature communications, 9(1), 4420-4420 (2018-10-26)
Understanding the structural biology of the insulin receptor and how it signals is of key importance in the development of insulin analogs to treat diabetes. We report here a cryo-electron microscopy structure of a single insulin bound to a physiologically...
Anisha M Hammer et al.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 19(6), 496-508 (2017-05-16)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for mammary ductal development and differentiation, but how mammary fibroblasts regulate ECM remodeling remains to be elucidated. Herein, we used a mouse genetic model to activate platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) specifically in...
Sarfraz Ahmad et al.
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 17(6), 1101-1108 (2009-04-02)
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface antigen expressed in normal human prostate and over expressed in prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSCA protein in prostate cancer correlate with increased tumor stage/grade, with androgen independence and have higher...


Reversed-Phase HPLC Analysis of Insulin Variants and Analogs by UV and Mass Spectral Detection

Insulin is an approximately 6000 Da peptide hormone used to regulate the glucose concentration in blood. There are several different forms of insulin that are both natural and recombinant; the recombinant forms have been engineered to improve pharmacokinetic properties. A quick and reliable chromatographic technique was developed to identify and detect a mixture of insulin variants in an unknown sample.

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