S3674

Sigma-Aldrich

Succinic acid

greener alternative

BioXtra, BioRenewable, ≥99.0%

Synonym(s):
Butanedioic acid
Linear Formula:
HOOCCH2CH2COOH
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
118.09
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
1754069
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

product line

BioXtra

assay

≥99.0%

greener alternative product characteristics

Use of Renewable Feedstocks
Learn more about the Principles of Green Chemistry.

impurities

≤0.01% Insoluble matter

ign. residue

≤0.02%

bp

235 °C (lit.)

mp

184-186 °C (lit.)

solubility

H2O: 0.5 M, clear, colorless

anion traces

chloride (Cl-): ≤0.001%
sulfate (SO42-): ≤0.003%

cation traces

Al: ≤0.0005%
Ca: ≤0.001%
Cu: ≤0.0005%
Fe: ≤0.0005%
K: ≤0.005%
Mg: ≤0.0005%
NH4+: ≤0.05%
Na: ≤0.005%
Pb: ≤0.001%
Zn: ≤0.0005%

SMILES string

OC(=O)CCC(O)=O

InChI

1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)

InChI key

KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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General description

We are committed to bringing you Greener Alternative Products, which adhere to one or more of The 12 Principles of Greener Chemistry. This product is biobased and thus aligns with "Use of Renewable Feedstocks". Click here for more information.

Application

Succinic acid has been used:
  • in succinate dehydrogenase mitochondrial assay.
  • as an internal standard in mass spectroscopy.
  • as succinate dehydrogenase substrate in oxygraph analysis to measure respiration rates.

Packaging

100, 250 g in poly bottle
1 kg in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Succinic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic fermentation in microbes. It is a dicarboxylic acid and an intermediate in Kreb′s cycle. Polymorphism in succinate dehydrogenase leads to succinate accumulation. High levels of succinate impairs 2-oxoglutarate epigenetic signalling. Succinate levels may modulate tumor progression. Succinate inhibits histone demethylation and may contribute to epigenetic changes. Succinate is crucial for interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) synthesis during inflammation and immune signalling.

Pictograms

Corrosion

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

RIDADR

NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany

WGK 1

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Succinate: a new epigenetic hacker
Yang M and Pollard PJ
Cancer Cell, 23(6), 709-711 (2013)
Cardiomyocyte differentiation: Experience and observations from 2 laboratories
Patten VA, et al.
SA heart journal, 14(2), 96-107 (2017)
Screening For Isolation of Succinic Acid Producing Microbes
Hema N and Sreenath KP
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, 15(2), 327-333 (2018)
Hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells in situ: visualizing the therapeutic effects of metformin in tumor tissue
Whitaker-Menezes D, et al.
Cell Cycle, 10(23), 4047-4064 (2011)
Oncometabolites: Unconventional triggers of oncogenic signalling cascades
Sciacovelli M and Frezza C
Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 100(9), 175-181 (2016)

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