3.5 (vs air)
51.75 mmHg ( 20 °C)
≤0.5% water (Karl Fischer)
n20/D 1.401 (lit.)
88.8 °C (lit.)
−115 °C (lit.)
0.726 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
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Acute Tox. 3 Dermal - Acute Tox. 3 Inhalation - Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Eye Dam. 1 - Flam. Liq. 2 - Skin Corr. 1A - STOT SE 3
3 - Flammable liquids
Amide bonds are ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. They are vital to the structure and function of biological macromolecules and polymers. The importance of this functionality has resulted in numerous approaches to its formation, ranging from stoichiometric activation of carboxylic acids to more recent advances in catalytic amide bond formation.
The Heck reaction is the palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between alkenes and aryl or vinyl halides (or triflates) to afford substituted alkenes.