Y0000191

Human glucagon

European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Synonym(s):
Glucagon
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C153H225N43O49S
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
3482.75
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.24
Pricing and availability is not currently available.

grade

pharmaceutical primary standard

form

neat

CofA

certificate is enclosed in each package

mfr. no.

EDQM

Featured Industry

Pharmaceutical (small molecule)

format

neat

storage temp.

−20°C

InChI

1S/C153H225N43O49S/c1-72(2)52-97(133(226)176-96(47-51-246-11)132(225)184-104(60-115(159)209)143(236)196-123(78(10)203)151(244)245)179-137(230)103(58-83-64-167-89-29-19-18-28-87(83)89)183-131(224)95(43-46-114(158)208)177-148(241)120(74(5)6)194-141(234)101(54-79-24-14-12-15-25-79)182-138(231)105(61-117(211)212)185-130(223)94(42-45-113(157)207)171-124(217)75(7)170-127(220)91(31-22-49-165-152(160)161)172-128(221)92(32-23-50-166-153(162)163)174-146(239)110(69-199)191-140(233)107(63-119(215)216)186-134(227)98(53-73(3)4)178-135(228)99(56-81-33-37-85(204)38-34-81)180-129(222)90(30-20-21-48-154)173-145(238)109(68-198)190-136(229)100(57-82-35-39-86(205)40-36-82)181-139(232)106(62-118(213)214)187-147(240)111(70-200)192-150(243)122(77(9)202)195-142(235)102(55-80-26-16-13-17-27-80)188-149(242)121(76(8)201)193-116(210)66-168-126(219)93(41-44-112(156)206)175-144(237)108(67-197)189-125(218)88(155)59-84-65-164-71-169-84/h12-19,24-29,33-40,64-65,71-78,88,90-111,120-123,167,197-205H,20-23,30-32,41-63,66-70,154-155H2,1-11H3,(H2,156,206)(H2,157,207)(H2,158,208)(H2,159,209)(H,164,169)(H,168,219)(H,170,220)(H,171,217)(H,172,221)(H,173,238)(H,174,239)(H,175,237)(H,176,226)(H,177,241)(H,178,228)(H,179,230)(H,180,222)(H,181,232)(H,182,231)(H,183,224)(H,184,225)(H,185,223)(H,186,227)(H,187,240)(H,188,242)(H,189,218)(H,190,229)(H,191,233)(H,192,243)(H,193,210)(H,194,234)(H,195,235)(H,196,236)(H,211,212)(H,213,214)(H,215,216)(H,244,245)(H4,160,161,165)(H4,162,163,166)/t75-,76+,77+,78+,88-,90-,91-,92-,93-,94-,95-,96-,97-,98-,99-,100-,101-,102-,103-,104-,105-,106-,107-,108-,109-,110-,111-,120-,121-,122-,123-/m0/s1

InChI key

MASNOZXLGMXCHN-ZLPAWPGGSA-N

Gene Information

human ... GCGR(2642)

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Amino Acid Sequence

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr

General description

This product is provided as delivered and specified by the issuing Pharmacopoeia. All information provided in support of this product, including SDS and any product information leaflets have been developed and issued under the Authority of the Issuing Pharmacopoeia. For further information and support please go to the website of the issuing Pharmacopoeia.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic α-cells that raises blood glucose and (indirectly) insulin levels. Glucagon acts via a G protein-coupled receptor, which results in the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen.

Packaging

Unit quantity: 2.94 mg. Subject to change. The product is delivered as supplied by the issuing Pharmacopoeia. For the current unit quantity, please visit the EDQM reference subtance catalogue.

Other Notes

Highly-conserved 29-amino acid polypeptide hormone produced by the pancreatic cells.
Sales restrictions may apply.

Caution

RIDADR

NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
The BMJ and Dispatches gave only one side of the story.
Richard I G Holt
BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 347, f4379-f4379 (2013-07-12)
Investigations editor's reply to Holt and to Barnett and O'Hare.
Deborah Cohen
BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 347, f4383-f4383 (2013-07-12)
Incretin therapy: should adverse consequences have been anticipated?
Edwin Gale
BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 346, f3617-f3617 (2013-06-12)
Patricia I Mighiu et al.
Nature medicine, 19(6), 766-772 (2013-05-21)
Glucagon activates hepatic protein kinase A (PKA) to increase glucose production, but the gluco-stimulatory effect is transient even in the presence of continuous intravenous glucagon infusion. Continuous intravenous infusion of insulin, however, inhibits glucose production through its sustained actions in...
A L McCall et al.
Minerva endocrinologica, 38(2), 145-163 (2013-06-05)
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder where slow destruction of pancreatic β-cells occurs through autoimmune mechanisms. The result is a progressive and ultimately complete lack of endogenous insulin. Due to β-cell lack, secondary abnormalities in glucagon and likely in incretins...

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