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178810

Sigma-Aldrich

Tetrahydrofuran

ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%, contains 250 ppm BHT as inhibitor

Synonym(s):
Tetramethylene oxide, THF, Oxolane, Butylene oxide
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C4H8O
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
72.11
Beilstein:
102391
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.21

Quality Level

vapor density

2.5 (vs air)

vapor pressure

114 mmHg ( 15 °C)
143 mmHg ( 20 °C)

product line

ReagentPlus®

assay

≥99.0%

form

liquid

autoignition temp.

610 °F

contains

250 ppm BHT as inhibitor

expl. lim.

1.8-11.8 %

refractive index

n20/D 1.407 (lit.)

pH

~7

bp

65-67 °C (lit.)

mp

−108 °C (lit.)

density

0.889 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)

SMILES string

C1CCOC1

InChI

1S/C4H8O/c1-2-4-5-3-1/h1-4H2

InChI key

WYURNTSHIVDZCO-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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General description

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a saturated cyclic ether mainly used as an organic solvent. On long term storage it forms organic peroxides. This process can be suppressed by adding butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a stabilizer. BHT removes the free radicals required for the peroxide formation. THF constitutes the key fragment of various natural products (polyether antibiotics). THF can form a double hydrate with hydrogen sulfide. Crystal structure of this double hydrate has been investigated by three-dimensional single-crystal studies. Butane-1,4-diol is formed as an intermediate during the synthesis of THF. Hot THF is useful for the dissolution of polyvinylidene chloride (PVDV).

Application

Tetrahydrofuran may be used for the dissolution of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and 1,3-diaminopentane, during the preparation of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds and acrylate-terminated poly(5-amino-1-pentanol-co-1,4-butanediol diacrylate) (C32)- 1,3-diaminopentane (117) polymer, respectively.

Packaging

1, 4 L in glass bottle
18 L in steel drum

Other Notes

For information on tetrahydrofuran miscibility, please visit the following link:
Tetrahydrofuran Miscibility/Immiscibility Table

Greener alternatives are available for many THF applications, 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran (155810) and Cyclopentyl methyl ether (675989)

Read more about THF alternatives:
2-Methyltetrahydroun (2-MeTHF): A biomass-Derived solvent with Broad Applications in Organic Chemistry

The toxicological assessment of cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) as a green solvent

Legal Information

ReagentPlus is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Carc. 2 - Eye Irrit. 2 - Flam. Liq. 2

Supplementary Hazards

Storage Class Code

3 - Flammable liquids

WGK

WGK 1

Flash Point(F)

-6.2 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

-21.2 °C - closed cup

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Vittorio Pace et al.
ChemSusChem, 5(8), 1369-1379 (2012-08-14)
2-Methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) can be derived from renewable resources (e.g., furfural or levulinic acid) and is a promising alternative solvent in the search for environmentally benign synthesis strategies. Its physical and chemical properties, such as its low miscibility with water, boiling
Kiyoshi Watanabe
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 18(3), 3183-3194 (2013-03-13)
Cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) has been used in chemical synthesis as an alternative to hazardous solvents. According to some earlier investigation by others, CPME has low acute or subchronic toxicity with moderate irritation and negative mutagenicity and negative skin sensitization
Todd J Harris et al.
Biomaterials, 31(5), 998-1006 (2009-10-24)
The use of biomaterials for gene delivery can potentially avoid many of the safety concerns with viral gene delivery. However, the efficacy of polymeric gene delivery methods is low, particularly in vivo. One significant concern is that the interior and
Polyhedral clathrate hydrates. X. Structure of the double hydrate of tetrahydrofuran and hydrogen sulfide.
Mak TCW, et al.
J. Chem. Phys. , 42(8), 2732-2737 (1965)
Synthetic routes to tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, and spiroketal units of polyether antibiotics and a survey of spiroketals of other natural products.
Boivin TLB.
Tetrahedron, 43(15), 3309-3362 (1987)

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