≥95.0% (HPLC), ~2700 U/mg

Axerophthol, Vitamin A alcohol, Vitamin A1, Vitamin A, all-trans-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2,4,6,8-nonatetraen-1-ol
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

biological source



≥95.0% (HPLC)


powder or crystals

specific activity

~2700 U/mg


yellow to dark yellow


61-63 °C (lit.)

shipped in

dry ice

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Retinal, retinol and retinoic acid are the aldehyde, alcohol and acid forms of vitamin A. The retinoids exist as many geometric isomers due to the unsaturated bonds in the aliphatic chain. Retinol is biologically active in a wide range of processes.
Retinol or all-trans-retinol is a 20-carbon molecule with cyclohexenyl ring, a side chain with four double bonds (all in trans configuration) and an alcohol end group.


Retinol has been used as a standard in ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) for the vitamins detection and quantification.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Retinol and its derivatives exhibit anti-aging properties. Retinol is used for treating wrinkles and signs of aging. However, due to its photo instability and skin irritation potency, it is hardly used in cosmetic formulations. Retinol is also used as a therapeutic for dermatoses. Its deficiency leads to xerosis and follicular hyperkeratosis.

Unit Definition

1 U corresponds to 1 international U acc. to Ph Eur II, 217 (1983)


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Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings-An experimental manipulation
Ruiz S, et al.
Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 213(2), 688-697 (2016)
Grace M Egeland et al.
Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique, 95(6), 465-469 (2004-12-30)
Inuit traditional food provides ample amounts of preformed vitamin A. However, the dietary transition away from traditional food raises concerns regarding dietary adequacy. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient with inadequate and excessive exposures having adverse effects. To evaluate total...
Frank T Wieringa et al.
The American journal of clinical nutrition, 77(3), 651-657 (2003-02-26)
Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. This study investigated interactions among 3 important micronutrients--iron, vitamin...
Jacqueline A Jumpsen et al.
Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society, 5(2), 77-84 (2006-03-02)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on blood and intestinal DHA levels and lung function in mild/moderately affected adult CF patients with the DeltaF508 genotype. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients often present...
S P Spencer et al.
Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6169), 432-437 (2014-01-25)
How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here...

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