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≥90.0% (HPLC)

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level


≥90.0% (HPLC)


in ethanol

UV absorption

λ: 438-442 nm Amax

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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Biochem/physiol Actions

Violaxanthin is a carotene epoxide that is a precursor to capsanthin. It is one of three xanthophylls involved in the evolution of plastids of green plants (oxygen evolution) and participating in photo-induced interconversions known as the violaxanthin cycle. The cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoids (violaxanthin) to xanthoxin is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid biosynthesis.

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

T Kinoshita et al.
Nature, 414(6864), 656-660 (2001-12-12)
The stomatal pores of higher plants allow for gaseous exchange into and out of leaves. Situated in the epidermis, they are surrounded by a pair of guard cells which control their opening in response to many environmental stimuli, including blue...
M Havaux et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(15), 8762-8767 (1999-07-21)
When light energy absorbed by plants becomes excessive relative to the capacity of photosynthesis, the xanthophyll violaxanthin is reversibly deepoxidized to zeaxanthin (violaxanthin cycle). The protective function of this phenomenon was investigated in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, npq1, that...
Vicente F Cataldo et al.
Metabolic engineering, 59, 53-63 (2020-02-01)
Microbial production of carotenoids has mainly focused towards a few products, such as β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. However, other less explored carotenoids, like violaxanthin, have also shown unique properties and promissory applications. Violaxanthin is a plant-derived epoxidated carotenoid with strong...
W Bilger et al.
Photosynthesis research, 25(3), 173-185 (1990-09-01)
The role of the xanthophyll cycle in regulating the energy flow to the PS II reaction centers and therefore in photoprotection was studied by measurements of light-induced absorbance changes, Chl fluorescence, and photosynthetic O2 evolution in sun and shade leaves...
The Photochemistry of Carotenoids (2006)

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