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Betaine monohydrate


Linear Formula:
(CH3)3N+CH2COO- · H2O
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

biological source





powder or crystals


water: 50 mg/mL, clear, colorless

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Betaine is a zwitterionic quaternary ammonium compound and is mainly present in animals, microorganisms and plants. It is one of the main constituent of several food items like wheat, shellfish, spinach and sugar beets. It is also termed as trimethylglycine, lycine, glycine betaine and oxyneurine. Betaine is a methyl derivative of glycine. It has a molecular mass of 117.2.


Betaine monohydrate has been used:
  • in the preparation of KLA buffer to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • to study the its effects on Km and Vmax of human aldose reductase
  • to study its effects on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo

Biochem/physiol Actions

End-product of oxidative metabolism of choline, betaine is a general methyl donor, in particular in a minor pathway of methionine biosynthesis. It is used to treat homocystinuria, which is a defect in the major pathway of methionine biosynthesis.
Betaine, as an osmolyte helps to guard the cells, proteins and enzymes from environmental stress. It also acts as a methyl donor to involve in the methionine cycle.

Storage Class Code

13 - Non Combustible Solids



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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Anirban Purohit et al.
Biophysical journal, 120(1), 73-85 (2020-11-23)
Sliding clamps are oligomeric ring-shaped proteins that increase the efficiency of DNA replication. The stability of the Escherichia coli β-clamp, a homodimer, is particularly remarkable. The dissociation equilibrium constant of the β-clamp is of the order of 10 pM in
Study of the effects of betaine and/or C-phycocyanin on the growth of lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo
Bingula R, et al.
Journal of Oncology, 2016 (2016)
Factors affecting counteraction by methylamines of urea effects on aldose reductase
Burg MB, et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96(11), 6517-6522 (1999)
Wnt-dependent β-catenin signaling is activated after unilateral ureteral obstruction, and recombinant secreted frizzled-related protein 4 alters the progression of renal fibrosis.
Surendran K, et al.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 16(8), 2373-2384 (2005)
Stuart A S Craig
The American journal of clinical nutrition, 80(3), 539-549 (2004-08-24)
Betaine is distributed widely in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and rich dietary sources include seafood, especially marine invertebrates ( approximately 1%); wheat germ or bran ( approximately 1%); and spinach ( approximately 0.7%). The principal physiologic role of betaine is

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