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G1774

Sigma-Aldrich

Glucagon

≥95% (HPLC), powder, synthetic

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Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C153H225N43O49S
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
3482.75
NACRES:
NA.32

biological source

synthetic

Quality Level

sterility

non-sterile

assay

≥95% (HPLC)

form

powder

technique(s)

cell based assay: suitable

solubility

1% acetic acid: 1.00-1.04 mg/mL, clear, colorless
water: 1.00-1.04 mg/mL, clear, colorless

suitability

suitable for molecular biology

UniProt accession no.

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

−20°C

SMILES string

Cl[H].[H]N[C@@H](Cc1cnc[nH]1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)NCC(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc3ccc(O)cc3)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc4ccc(O)cc4)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc5ccccc5)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc6c[nH]c7ccccc67)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCSC)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)O)C(O)=O

InChI

1S/C153H225N43O49S.ClH/c1-72(2)52-97(133(226)176-96(47-51-246-11)132(225)184-104(60-115(159)209)143(236)196-123(78(10)203)151(244)245)179-137(230)103(58-83-64-167-89-29-19-18-28-87(83)89)183-131(224)95(43-46-114(158)208)177-148(241)120(74(5)6)194-141(234)101(54-79-24-14-12-15-25-79)182-138(231)105(61-117(211)212)185-130(223)94(42-45-113(157)207)171-124(217)75(7)170-127(220)91(31-22-49-165-152(160)161)172-128(221)92(32-23-50-166-153(162)163)174-146(239)110(69-199)191-140(233)107(63-119(215)216)186-134(227)98(53-73(3)4)178-135(228)99(56-81-33-37-85(204)38-34-81)180-129(222)90(30-20-21-48-154)173-145(238)109(68-198)190-136(229)100(57-82-35-39-86(205)40-36-82)181-139(232)106(62-118(213)214)187-147(240)111(70-200)192-150(243)122(77(9)202)195-142(235)102(55-80-26-16-13-17-27-80)188-149(242)121(76(8)201)193-116(210)66-168-126(219)93(41-44-112(156)206)175-144(237)108(67-197)189-125(218)88(155)59-84-65-164-71-169-84;/h12-19,24-29,33-40,64-65,71-78,88,90-111,120-123,167,197-205H,20-23,30-32,41-63,66-70,154-155H2,1-11H3,(H2,156,206)(H2,157,207)(H2,158,208)(H2,159,209)(H,164,169)(H,168,219)(H,170,220)(H,171,217)(H,172,221)(H,173,238)(H,174,239)(H,175,237)(H,176,226)(H,177,241)(H,178,228)(H,179,230)(H,180,222)(H,181,232)(H,182,231)(H,183,224)(H,184,225)(H,185,223)(H,186,227)(H,187,240)(H,188,242)(H,189,218)(H,190,229)(H,191,233)(H,192,243)(H,193,210)(H,194,234)(H,195,235)(H,196,236)(H,211,212)(H,213,214)(H,215,216)(H,244,245)(H4,160,161,165)(H4,162,163,166);1H/t75-,76+,77+,78+,88-,90-,91-,92-,93-,94-,95-,96-,97-,98-,99-,100-,101-,102-,103-,104-,105-,106-,107-,108-,109-,110-,111-,120-,121-,122-,123-;/m0./s1

InChI key

RKGLLHCSSVJTAN-YYICOITRSA-N

Gene Information

human ... GCG(2641)

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Show Differences

1 of 4

This Item
9030G2044G3265
Glucagon ≥95% (HPLC), powder, synthetic

G1774

Glucagon

Sigma-Aldrich

9030

Glucagon

Glucagon synthetic, powder, suitable for cell culture

G2044

Glucagon

Sigma-Aldrich

G3265

Glucagon-Like Peptide I human

assay

≥95% (HPLC)

assay

-

assay

≥95% (HPLC)

assay

≥97% (HPLC)

Quality Level

300

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

form

powder

form

solid

form

powder

form

-

technique(s)

cell based assay: suitable

technique(s)

-

technique(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

technique(s)

-

solubility

1% acetic acid: 1.00-1.04 mg/mL, clear, colorless, water: 1.00-1.04 mg/mL, clear, colorless

solubility

-

solubility

0.05 M acetic acid: 1 mg/mL, clear, colorless

solubility

-

Amino Acid Sequence

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr

General description

Glucagon (GCG) peptide is secreted in response to insulin from pancreatic islets α-cells.
Glucagon is synthesized from proglucagon and is 29-amino acid peptide hormone. Proglucagon gene is mapped to human chromosome 2q24.2.

Application

Glucagon (GCG) has been:
  • used as a component of hormone stock solution for preserving full biological activity of heart tissues obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats
  • used as an infusion in phases II and III fasting king penguins to study the various lipolytic, metabolic, and hormonal responses
  • used for the stimulation of PGC-1α expression in hepatocytes
  • used to induce the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase α1 (MAT1A), which is involved in the regulation of hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine and the adaptive response to fasting
  • used to study its effect on stimulation of gluconeogenesis through hepatic lipolysis, mediated by inositol trisphosphate receptor 1 (INSP3R1)
  • intraperitoneally injected in mice to assess glucagon-induced Sam68 subcellular localization in vivo

Biochem/physiol Actions

Glucagon (GCG) produces elevation in contractility and the frequency of contraction in heart muscles. It activates PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and thus, elevates glucose utilization by heart muscles. In multiple mammals, though not humans, this peptide induces lipolysis, and is the major lipolytic hormone in birds. It also induces gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in mammals and birds.
The paired box 6 (PAX6) regulates the expression of glucagon. High levels of glucagon referred to as hyperglucagonemia leads to a high risk of diabetes and is associated with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Defective glucagon hypersecretion is regarded as an etiopathogenic factor.

Components

H-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr-OH.xHCl

Other Notes

Lyophilized from 0.1% TFA in H2O

Storage Class

11 - Combustible Solids

wgk_germany

WGK 3

flash_point_f

Not applicable

flash_point_c

Not applicable

ppe

Eyeshields, Gloves, type N95 (US)


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Glucose-dependent downregulation of glucagon gene expression mediated by selective interactions between ALX3 and PAX6 in mouse alpha cells
Mirasierra M and Vallejo M
Diabetologia, 59(4), 766-775 (2016)
Glucagon stimulates gluconeogenesis by INSP3R1-mediated hepatic lipolysis
Perry RJ, et al.
Nature, 579(7798), 279-283 (2020)
Baicalin ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance and gluconeogenic activity through inhibition of p38 MAPK/PGC-1alpha pathway
Fang P, et al.
Phytomedicine, 64, 153074-153074 (2019)
Aijun Qiao et al.
International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19) (2022-10-15)
Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is an important component of glucose homeostasis, and deregulated HGP, particularly through gluconeogenesis, contributes to hyperglycemia and pathology of type-2 diabetes (T2D). It has been shown that the gluconeogenic gene expression is governed primarily by the
Association of TCF7L2 and GCG gene variants with insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and obesity in new-onset diabetes
Zhang L, et al.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : Bes, 29(11), 814-817 (2016)

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