Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose hydrate

≥96% (HPLC)

Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, Penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose, Gallic acid, pentaester with b-D-glucopyranose, 1,2,3,4,6-pentakis(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate)-b-D-Glucopyranose, PGG, Glucopyranose, pentagallate, b-D, 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucopyranose
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C41H32O26 · xH2O
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
940.68 (anhydrous basis)
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level


≥96% (HPLC)



optical activity

[α]/D +18 to +27°, c = 0.2 in acetone-d6


light brown


DMSO: ≥20 mg/mL

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key



Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose hydrate (PCG) has been used as an inhibitor of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) related metastatic activity.


5, 25 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose hydrate (PCG) is a polyphenolic gallotannin compound produced by plants. It has an ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) related metastatic activity. Thus, PCG can be used for treating metastatic activity in squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, it also acts as a potential drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms.
PGG induces predominantly (caspase dependent) apoptosis in DU145 and LNCaP cells, while inducing autophagy in more resistant PC3 and TRAMP-C2 cells. It appears that PGG targeted signaling downstream of rather than the mTOR itself. Polyphenolic pyranoses were reported (J Biol Chem. 2010, 285 (11), 7892-902) to inhibit the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1).

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for Apoptosis research. Click here to discover more featured Apoptosis products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at sigma.com/discover-bsm.


13 - Non Combustible Solids

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Rehana Perveen et al.
PloS one, 6(11), e26238-e26238 (2011-11-11)
We have shown that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (α-PGG), an orally effective hypoglycemic small molecule, binds to insulin receptors and activates insulin-mediated glucose transport. Insulin has been shown to bind to its receptors on platelets and inhibit platelet activation. In this study we...
Sourav S Patnaik et al.
Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 6(3) (2019-07-07)
The objective of this study was to quantify pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) mediated biomechanical restoration of degenerated extracellular matrix (ECM). Planar biaxial tensile testing was performed for native (N), enzyme-treated (collagenase and elastase) (E), and PGG (P) treated porcine abdominal aorta...
Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model
Kloster BO, et al.
Annals of medicine and surgery, 7, 65-70 (2016)
Travis S Johnson et al.
GigaScience, 8(5) (2019-04-28)
Long thought "relics" of evolution, not until recently have pseudogenes been of medical interest regarding regulation in cancer. Often, these regulatory roles are a direct by-product of their close sequence homology to protein-coding genes. Novel pseudogene-gene (PGG) functional associations can...
Sohee Bae et al.
Antiviral research, 144, 266-272 (2017-07-03)
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris (ESE) on varicella-zoster virus (VZV) replication and identify the specific bioactive component(s) underlying its activity. ESE induced a significant reduction in replication...
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