I3536

Sigma-Aldrich

Insulin human

recombinant, expressed in yeast, γ-irradiated, suitable for cell culture

Synonym(s):
Insulin human
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C257H383N65O77S6
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
5807.57
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.77

Quality Level

recombinant

expressed in yeast

sterility

γ-irradiated

form

lyophilized powder

potency

≥25 USP units per mg

application(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

solubility

0.01 M HCl: 20 mg/mL, clear, colorless to faintly yellow

UniProt accession no.

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

−20°C

InChI key

PBGKTOXHQIOBKM-FHFVDXKLSA-N

Gene Information

human ... INS(3630)

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Related Categories

General description

The INS gene encodes for preproinsulin, which is enzymatically converted into insulin. Insulin is produced in the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Preproinsulin is converted to proinsulin in ER and proinsulin is then proteolytically processed to form insulin in newly-forming insulin secretory granules. Insulin production is tightly regulated by specific DNA elements present within ∼400 bp in the proximal region of the INS promoter.

Application

Insulin human has been used for the following applications:
  • For adipogenic differentiation assays (in the preparation of medium supplement)
  • Incubation of cells for the evaluation of the effects of insulin
  • Mass spectrometry (used for the external caliberation)

Biochem/physiol Actions

Insulin is responsible for two types of actions- excitatory and inhibitory. In its excitatory role, it increases the uptake of glucose and lipid synthesis, and in its inhibitory role it inhibits glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, proteolysis and ketogenesis. Aberrant insulin secretion leads to various disorders such as diabetes, hyperglycemia or hypoglycaemia. Type I diabetes is a result of autoimmune destruction of β cells of pancreas, which leads to depletion of insulin. Mutant INS-gene Induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by missense mutations, which lead to aberrant proinsulin folding. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is caused by resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.
Two-chain polypeptide hormone produced by the β-cells of pancreatic islets. Its molecular weight is ~5800 Da. The α and β chains are joined by two interchain disulfide bonds. The α chain contains an intrachain disulfide bond. Insulin regulates the cellular uptake, utilization, and storage of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids and inhibits the breakdown of glycogen, protein, and fat.

Other Notes

InChI: 1S/C257H383N65O77S6/c1-29-131(23)205(313-193(339)104-259)252(393)317-204(130(21)22)248(389)288-159(75-82-200(349)350)217(358)282-156(71-78-189(263)335)221(362)308-183-116-403-404-117-184-243(384)305-178(111-324)240(381)294-162(88-123(7)8)225(366)295-168(95-140-53-61-146(329)62-54-140)228(369)283-154(69-76-187(261)333)218(359)290-161(87-122(5)6)223(364)285-158(74-81-199(347)348)220(361)302-174(101-190(264)336)235(376)298-170(97-142-57-65-148(331)66-58-142)231(372)309-182(242(383)304-176(255(396)397)103-192(266)338)115-402-401-114-181(214(355)273-107-194(340)278-153(72-79-197(343)344)216(357)281-151(51-42-84-271-257(267)268)212(353)272-108-195(341)279-166(93-138-46-36-32-37-47-138)227(368)297-167(94-139-48-38-33-39-49-139)230(371)299-171(98-143-59-67-149(332)68-60-143)238(379)320-208(135(27)327)254(395)322-85-43-52-186(322)246(387)286-152(50-40-41-83-258)222(363)321-209(136(28)328)256(398)399)311-250(391)203(129(19)20)316-236(377)164(90-125(11)12)292-229(370)169(96-141-55-63-147(330)64-56-141)296-224(365)160(86-121(3)4)289-210(351)133(25)277-215(356)157(73-80-198(345)346)287-247(388)202(128(17)18)315-237(378)165(91-126(13)14)293-233(374)173(100-145-106-270-120-276-145)301-239(380)177(110-323)280-196(342)109-274-213(354)180(113-400-405-118-185(310-244(183)385)245(386)319-207(134(26)326)253(394)306-179(112-325)241(382)318-206(132(24)30-2)251(392)312-184)307-226(367)163(89-124(9)10)291-232(373)172(99-144-105-269-119-275-144)300-219(360)155(70-77-188(262)334)284-234(375)175(102-191(265)337)303-249(390)201(127(15)16)314-211(352)150(260)92-137-44-34-31-35-45-137/h31-39,44-49,53-68,105-106,119-136,150-186,201-209,323-332H,29-30,40-43,50-52,69-104,107-118,258-260H2,1-28H3,(H2,261,333)(H2,262,334)(H2,263,335)(H2,264,336)(H2,265,337)(H2,266,338)(H,269,275)(H,270,276)(H,272,353)(H,273,355)(H,274,354)(H,277,356)(H,278,340)(H,279,341)(H,280,342)(H,281,357)(H,282,358)(H,283,369)(H,284,375)(H,285,364)(H,286,387)(H,287,388)(H,288,389)(H,289,351)(H,290,359)(H,291,373)(H,292,370)(H,293,374)(H,294,381)(H,295,366)(H,296,365)(H,297,368)(H,298,376)(H,299,371)(H,300,360)(H,301,380)(H,302,361)(H,303,390)(H,304,383)(H,305,384)(H,306,394)(H,307,367)(H,308,362)(H,309,372)(H,310,385)(H,311,391)(H,312,392)(H,313,339)(H,314,352)(H,315,378)(H,316,377)(H,317,393)(H,318,382)(H,319,386)(H,320,379)(H,321,363)(H,343,344)(H,345,346)(H,347,348)(H,349,350)(H,396,397)(H,398,399)(H4,267,268,271)/t131-,132-,133-,134+,135+,136+,150-,151-,152-,153-,154-,155-,156-,157-,158-,159-,160-,161-,162-,163-,164-,165-,166-,167-,168-,169-,170-,171-,172-,173-,174-,175-,176-,177-,178-,179-,180-,181-,182-,183-,184-,185-,186-,201-,202-,203-,204-,205-,206-,207-,208-,209-/m0/s1

storage_class_code

13 - Non Combustible Solids

WGK Germany

WGK 2

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

E Roine et al.
FEBS letters, 417(2), 168-172 (1997-12-12)
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces Hrp pili under inducing in vitro conditions. A preparation of partially purified extracellular filaments contains HrpA, flagellin and some minor contaminants. HrpA was separated from the major contaminant, the flagellin, by gel filtration to...
Y Nakamura et al.
British journal of pharmacology, 123(4), 675-682 (1998-03-28)
1. The actions of troglitazone, pioglitazone, metformin and bezafibrate, agents that improve insulin-resistance, on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells were examined by use of the conventional and nystatin-perforated whole-cell clamp methods. Single cells were freshly isolated from...
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz et al.
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 75(3), 432-436 (2019-01-01)
The insulin receptor substrate 1 regulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake and is a target of Rho-kinase (Rock); however, the relationship between age-related insulin resistance and Rock signaling specifically in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is unknown. We evaluated the content and...
Insulin: understanding its action in health and disease.
P Sonksen et al.
British journal of anaesthesia, 85(1), 69-79 (2000-08-06)
S Assady et al.
Diabetes, 50(8), 1691-1697 (2001-07-27)
Type 1 diabetes generally results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet beta-cells, with consequent absolute insulin deficiency and complete dependence on exogenous insulin treatment. The relative paucity of donations for pancreas or islet allograft transplantation has prompted the search for...

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