(±)-Ketamine hydrochloride


(±)-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone hydrochloride
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C13H16ClNO · HCl
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level



drug control

USDEA Schedule III; stupéfiant (France); regulated under CDSA - not available from Sigma-Aldrich Canada; psicótropo (Spain)



storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


Gene Information

human ... GRIN1(2902), GRIN2A(2903), GRIN2B(2904), GRIN2C(2905), GRIN2D(2906), GRIN3A(116443), GRIN3B(116444)

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Related Categories

Biochem/physiol Actions

Selective NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist; veterinary anesthetic.


Exclamation mark

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Target Organs

Central nervous system

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

R V Pustovit et al.
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society, 27(5), 610-617 (2015-01-24)
Despite constipation being a common problem, the treatments that are available have side effects and are only partly effective. Recent studies show that centrally penetrant ghrelin receptor agonists cause defecation in humans and other species. Here, we describe some features...
James W Murrough et al.
The American journal of psychiatry, 170(10), 1134-1142 (2013-08-29)
Ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has shown rapid antidepressant effects, but small study groups and inadequate control conditions in prior studies have precluded a definitive conclusion. The authors evaluated the rapid antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in a large...
Ege T Kavalali et al.
The American journal of psychiatry, 169(11), 1150-1156 (2013-03-28)
Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that a single subpsychotomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces a rapid antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder, with effects lasting up to 2 weeks. Despite enthusiasm about...
Scott A Schobel et al.
Neuron, 78(1), 81-93 (2013-04-16)
The hippocampus in schizophrenia is characterized by both hypermetabolism and reduced size. It remains unknown whether these abnormalities are mechanistically linked. Here we addressed this question by using MRI tools that can map hippocampal metabolism and structure in patients and...
Songen Zhang et al.
Journal of leukocyte biology, 97(6), 1003-1010 (2015-01-15)
Streptococcus pyogenes of the M1 serotype can cause STSS, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of NFAT signaling in M1 protein-induced lung injury. NFAT-luc mice were treated...

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